ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES IN PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGY 6300

PROFESSOR STEPHEN L. GOLDING

Spring, 2006 Footnote


 BIBLIOGRAPHY


 

I: Fundamental Ethical Principles

A. APA Ethics statements, reports and guidelines

B. State of Utah

B-1:University of Utah

D. Ethics complaints, procedures, and comments

E. Codes of other professions

F. Other State of Utah Codes

G. Research ethics

G-1 Institutional Review Boards

G-2 Ethical issues in drug trials

G-3 Conflicts of Interest

G-4 Informed Consent for Research - Vulnerable populations

H. Ethics education and other materials

I. Licensure

 

II: Fundamental legal regulation -- Malpractice

 

III: Confidentiality and privilege

A. Mandatory reporting -- children and other vulnerable populations

B. Mandatory reporting -- Tarasoff and potential violence

C. Sexual exploitation of clients and impaired therapists

D. AIDS

E. Teaching, Describing and Publishing Clinical Case Materials

F. Confidentiality and research

G. Research on expectations and use of confidentiality

H. Waiver of the psychologist’s own expectation of privilege

I:HIPAA Issues

Other confidentiality and privilege issues

 

IV: Ethical issues in psychotherapy

A. Sexual misconduct and dual role relationships

A-1. Non-sexual multiple relationship issues

B. Therapeutic modalities

B-1 High risk therapy and other techniques (e.g, recovered memories; child abuse)


B-2 Group and marital therapies

B-3 Moral, religious and diversity issues

B-4 Other modalities

C. Record keeping

D. Supervision

E. Other malpractice issues

F. Informed consent

G. Managed care

G-1 ERISA Issues

H. Right to die and assisted suicide in therapy and assessment

I. Other ethical issues in psychotherapy

J. Psychologists as prescribers of psychotropic medication treatment

 

V: Issues in assessment

A:Disclosure of test data and materials under HIPAA

 

VI: Problems with children and minors

 

VII: Problems in psychological expertise in a legal context

A. Ethical codes and related materials

B. Application of HIPPA to forensic practice

C. Execution, the death penalty and capital sentencing

E. Forensic assessment

F. Expert testimony and specific content areas

 

VIII: Ethnic, cultural psychological and gender diversity/ADA

 

IX: Special populations and problems

Prisoners and violent patients

Presumptive incompetence

Elderly

Community and rural psychology

Intervention/policy research

Issues in the evaluation and supervision of graduate students and faculty-student relationships

Issues of confidentiality in modern electronic media

Public statements and advertisement

Battered Women



I: Fundamental Ethical Principles


A. APA Ethics statements, reports and guidelines


 

 American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://www2.apa.org/ethics/92-02codecompare.doc


American Psychological Association. (1985). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, D.C.: Author.


American Psychological Association. (1982). Ethical principles in the conduct of research with human participants. Washington, D.C.: Author. (This should have been covered in research design. If you are not familiar with it, please review. Knowledge of these principles will be assumed.)


American Psychological Association. (1981). Ethical principles of psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 633-638.


American Psychological Association. (1977). Standards for providers of psychological services. Washington, D.C.: Author.


American Psychological Association. (1996). Statement on the disclosure of test data. American Psychologist, 51, 644-648.


Anonymous. (1999, Dec). Test security: Protecting the integrity of tests. American Psychologist., 54(12), 1078.


Canter, M.B, Bennett, B.E, Jones, S.E, & Nagy, T.F. (1994). Ethics for psychologists: A commentary on the APA ethics code. American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C.


Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. (1991). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists. Law and Human Behavior, 15, 655-665.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1988). Casebook for providers of psychological services. American Psychologist, 43, 557-563.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1987). Casebook for providers of psychological services. American Psychologist, 42, 704-711.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1995). Twenty-four questions (and answers) about professional practice in the area of child abuse. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 377-385.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (2003). Legal issues in the professional practice of psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(6), 595-600.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1986). Casebook for providers of psychological services. American Psychologist, 41, 688-693.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1985). Casebook for providers of psychological services. American Psychologist, 40, 678-684.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1984). Casebook for providers of psychological services. American Psychologist, 39, 663-668.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1983). Casebook for providers of psychological services. American Psychologist, 38, 708-713.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1982). Casebook for providers of psychological services. American Psychologist, 37, 698-701.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1981). Casebook for providers of psychological services. American Psychologist, 36, 682-685.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1981). Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by clinical psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 640-651.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1981). Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by school psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 670-681.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1981). Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by industrial/organizational psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 664-669.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1981). Specialty guidelines for the delivery of services by counseling psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 652-663.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1987). Model act for state licensure of psychologists. American Psychologist, 42, 696-703.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1996). Rules and procedures. American Psychologist, 51, 529-548.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1995). Services by Telephone, Teleconferencing, and Internet. A statement of the Ethics Committee adopted by APA, 1995.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (2005). Report of the Ethics Committee, 2004. American Psychologist, 60(5), 523-528.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (2002, Aug). Report of the Ethics Committee, 2001. American Psychologist., 57(8), 646-653.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (2002). Rules and procedures:October 1, 2001. American Psychologist, 57, 626-645.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (2002, Aug). Report of the Ethics Committee, 2001. American Psychologist., 57(8), 646-653.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (2000). Report of the Ethics Committee, 1999. American Psychologist, 55(8), 938-945.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (2001, Aug). Report of the Ethics Committee, 2000. American Psychologist., 56(8), 680-688.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1998). Report of the Ethics Committee, 1997. American Psychologist, 53 (8), 969-980.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1995). Report of the Ethics Committee: 1994. American Psychologist, 50, 706-713.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1994). Report of the Ethics Committee: 1993. American Psychologist, 49, 659-666.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1994). Policy statement regarding "Take Home" tests. American Psychologist, 49, 659-666.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1993). Report of the Ethics Committee, 1991 and 1992. American Psychologist, 48(7), 811-820.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1992). Rules and procedures. American Psychologist, 47, 1612-1628


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1991). Report of the Ethics Committee, 1989 and 1990. American Psychologist, 46(7), 750-757.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association (1990). Report of the Ethics Committee: 1988. American Psychologist, 45, 873-874.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1986). Report of the Ethics Committee: 1985. American Psychologist,41, 694-697.


Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. (1988). Trends in ethics cases, common pitfalls, and published resources. American Psychologist, 43, 564-572.


Ethics Commmittee of the American Psychological Association. (2004). Report of the Ethics Committee, 2003. American Psychologist, 59(5), 434-441.


Golding, S.L. (2003). Comparing the new/old EPPCC http:/home.comcast.net/~slgolding/publications/EPPCC_comparison.htm


Smith,D. (2003). Ten ways practitioners can avoid frequent ethical pitfalls. Monitor on Psychology, January 2, 2003.


B. State of Utah


Psychologist's Licensing Act (1996). Utah Code Ann.§58-61-101 et seq. and §58-1-307


B-1:University of Utah


University of Utah, Code of Student Rights and Responsibilities, PPM 8-10 (Rev.3, 7/14/1997) (Available electronically at http://www.admin.utah.edu/ppmanual )


!University of Utah, Policy and Procedures Manual, Section 6.1.1, Rev.1 (Policy for Research Misconduct) and 2-30(Rev.5). Available at http://www.admin.utah.edu/ppmanual [Contains important rules and regulations, not required, but interesting reading when a dispute about research ethics, and conflicts of interest therein, arise]


!University of Utah, General University Institutional Review Board. Approved assessment instruments. Available at http://www.utah.edu/irb/guirb/approved.htm [Useful information about assessment procedures that have been “pre-approved”; N.B. not the research itself!]


!University of Utah, General University Institutional Review Board, Policy and Procedures. Available at http://www.utah.edu/irb/guirb


!Health and Human Services Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects. 35 Code of Federal Regulations 46 et seq.


D. Ethics complaints, procedures, and comments


Appelbaum, P. S. (2004). Legalism, Postmodernism, and the Vicissitudes of Teaching Ethics. Academic-Psychiatry, 28(3), 164-167.


Bersoff, D. N. (1994). Explicit ambiguity: The 1992 Ethics Code as an oxymoron. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 382-387.


Biaggio, M, Duffy, R, & Staffelbach, D. F. (1998). Obstacles to addressing professional misconduct. Clinical Psychology Review, 18 (3), 273-285. (Highly recommended discussion of why we do/don’t decide to report/investigate ethical problems with colleagues).

 

Fisher, C. (2003). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists. Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage.


Fisher, C. B, & Younggren, J. N. (1997). The value and utility of the 1992 ethics code. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28 (6), 582-592.


Friedman, P. J. (1996). Advice to individuals involved in misconduct accusations. Academic Medicine, 71(7), 716-723.


Hadjistavropoulos, T., & Malloy, D. C. (1999). Ethical principles of the American Psychological Association: An argument for philosophical and practical ranking. Ethics and Behavior., 9(2), 127-140.


Hadjistavropoulos, T., Malloy, D. C., Sharpe, D., Green, S. M., & Fuchs-Lacelle, S. (2002, Nov). The relative importance of the ethical principles adopted by the American Psychological Association. / The relative importance of the ethical principles adopted by the American Psychological Association. . Canadian Psychology., 43(4), 254-259.


Hall, J. E, & R. T. Hare-Mustin. (1983). Sanctions and the diversity of ethical complaints against psycholgists. American Psychologist, 38, 714-729.


Hanson, S. L., Kerkhoff, T. R., & Bush, S. S. (2005). Health care ethics for psychologists: A casebook. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Hare-Mustin, R. T, & J. E. Hall. (1981). Procedures for responding to ethics complaints against psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 1494-1505.


Kirkland, K., Kirkland, K. L., & Reaves, R. P. (2004). On the Professional Use of Disciplinary Data. Professional Psychology, 35(2), 179-184


Knapp, S., & VanderCreek, L. (2003). A Guide to the 2002 Revision of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.


Knapp, S., & Vandecreek, L. (2004). A Principle-Based Analysis of the 2002 American Psychological Association Ethics Code. Psychotherapy, 41(3), 247-254.


Mills, D. (1984). Ethics education and adjudication within psychology. American Psychologist, 39, 669-675.


Montgomery, L., Cupit, B., & Wimberley, T. (1999). Complaints, malpractice, and risk management: Professional issues and personal experiences. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(4), 402-410.


Nathan, P, Thoreson, R, & Kilburg R. (1983). Board of professional affairs steering committee on distressed psychologists. Draft Report, Nov. 1983


Overholser, J. C. & Fine, M. A. (1990). Defining the boundaries of professional competence: Managing subtle cases of clinical incompetence. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 462-469.


Peterson, C. (1996). Common problem areas and their causes resulting in disciplinary actions. In L. J. Bass, S. T. DeMers & et-al. (Eds.), Professional conduct and discipline in psychology. (pp. 71-89). Washington, DC, USA:: APA and Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards.


Sanders, J. R, & P. Keith-Spiegel. (1980). Formal and informal adjudication of ethics complaints against psychologists. American Psychologist, 35, 1096-1105.


Sanders, J. R. (1979). Complaints against psychologists adjudicated informally by APA's committee on scientific and professional ethics and conduct. American Psychologist, 34, 1139-1144.


Van Horne, B. (2004). Psychology licensing board disciplinary actions: The realities. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(2), 170-178.


Wendling, T. (1999). A Plain Dealer special investigation:Disiplined psychologists face few consequences. Clevland Plain Dealer [Online]. Available: http://www.cleveland.com/news/pdnes/metro/ca05psy.ssf (Accessed 09121999).


Wendling, T. (1999). Psychology board goes slow. Clevland Plain Dealer [Online]. Available: http://www.cleveland.com/news/pdnes/metro/ca07ops.ssf (Accessed 09121999).


E. Codes of other professions


American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy. (1998). AAMFT Code of Ethical Principles for Marriage and Family Therapists. (Available from AAMFT Internet Site)


American Mental Health Counselors Association. (2001, Jan). Code of ethics of the American Mental Health Counselors Association, 2000 revision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling., 23(1), 2-21. US: American Mental Health Counselors Assn.


American Psychiatric Association. (2001). Ethics primer of the American Psychiatric Association. Washington, DC, US: American Psychiatric Association.


American Psychiatric Association. (1995). Addendum to 1995 Edition of "The principles of medical ethics with annotation especially applicable to psychiatry ". Washington, D. C. : Author.

 

American Psychiatric Association. (1995). Opinions of the Ethics Committee on the Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry. Washington, D. C. : Author.


American Psychiatric Association. (1995). The principles of medical ethics with annotation especially applicable to psychiatry. Washington, D. C. : Author.


Anonymous. (2003). Codes of Ethics for the Helping Professions. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole.


Anonymous (1996). Ethical considerations of trial behavior consultants. [Online]. Perspectives. Available: http://www.cmhc.com/perspectives/articles/art39611.htm [1996, March 15].


Anzia, D. J, & la Puma, John. (1991). An annotated bibliography of psychiatric medical ethics. Academic Psychiatry, 15(1), 1-17.


Association of Sprecialists in Group Work. (1990). Ethical Guidelines for Group Counselors (1989 Revision). Journal of Specialists in Group Work, 15(2), 119-126.


Association of Sexual and Marital Therapists. (1986). Association of Sexual and Marital Therapists Code of Ethics. Sexual & Marital Therapy, 1, 109.


British Psychological Society. (1983). Guidelines for a code of conduct for psychologists. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 36, 242-244.


Brown, S. P., & Espina, M. R. (2000). Report of the ACA ethics committee: 1998-1999. Journal of Counseling and Development., 78(2), 237-241.


Colnerud, G. (1997). Ethical dilemmas of psychologists: A Swedish example in an international perspective. European Psychologist, 2 (2), 164-170.


Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2002). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole.


Eberlein, L. (1988). The new CPA Code of Ethics for Canadian psychologists: An education and training perspective. Canadian Psychology, 29, 206-212.


Glosoff, H. L, Corey, G, & Herlihy, B. (1996). Dual relationships. In B. Herlihy, G. Corey & et-al. (Eds.), ACA ethical standards casebook (5th ed.). (pp. 251-266). Alexandria, VA, USA: American Counseling Association.


Herlihy, B, & Corey, G. (Eds). (1996). ACA ethical standards casebook. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.


Hohmann-Marriott, B. E. (2001, Jan-Feb). Marriage and family therapy research: Ethical issues and guidelines. American Journal of Family Therapy., 29(1), 1-11. US: Brunner/Mazel Inc.


Leach, M. M, & Harbin, J. J. (1997). Psychological ethics codes: A comparison of twenty-four countries. International Journal of Psychology, 32 (3), 181-192.


National Organization of Forensic Social Work. (1994). Code of Ethics and Bylaws. Box 174, Milan, MI, 48160: Author.


Ogloff, J. R, & Olley, M. C. (1998). The interaction between ethics and the law: The ongoing refinement of ethical standards for psychologists in Canada. Canadian Psychology, 39 (3), 221-230.


Pettifor, J. L. (1998). The Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists: A moral context for ethical decision-making in emerging areas of practice. Canadian Psychology, 39 (3), 231-238.


Pfeiffer, J, & Jones, E. (1977). Ethics in consultation. Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators.


Preisman, R. C., Steinberg, M. D., Rummans, T. A., Youngner, S. J., Leeman, C. P., Lederberg, M. S., Cohen, M. A. A., Surman, O. S., & Blum, J. A. (1999, Sep-Oct). An annotated bibliography for ethics training in consultation-liaison psychiatry. Psychosomatics., 40(5), 369-379.


Sinclair, C. M, Poizner, S, & Gilmour-Barrett, K. (1987). The development of a code of ethics for Canadian psychologists. Canadian Psychology, 28, 1-8.


Swain, R. (2000). Awareness and decision making in professional ethics: The new code of the Psychological Society of Ireland. European Psychologist., 5(1), 19-27.


Swartz, L. (1988). Some comments on the Draft Ethical Code for South African clinical psychologists. South African Journal of Psychology, 18, 17-20.


F. Other State of Utah Codes


State of Utah. (1998). Human Services Code -- Abuse, Neglect or Exploitation of Disabled Adult. Utah Code Annotated §62A-3-301 et seq.


State of Utah. (1998). Provider Code of Conduct. Utah Administrative Code §R495-876-1 et seq. [Any empolyment which you obtain in Utah that involves providing services to clients in agencies that receive money from the State will require that you conduct yourself according to this Code of Conduct.]


State of Utah (1998). Limitation of therapist's duty to warn. Utah Code Ann. §78-14a-102.


State of Utah (1998). Child abuse reporting act. Utah Code Annotated §62a-4a-401 et seq.


State of Utah (1998). Government Records Access and Management Act, II. Utah Code Ann. 63-2-101 et seq,


G. Research ethics


Adair, J. G, Dushenko, R. W, & Lindsay, R. C. L. (1985). Ethical regulations and their impact on research practice. American Psychologist, 40, 1, 59-72.


Anonymous. (2000). Guidelines for the treatment of animals in behavioural research and teaching. Animal Behaviour., 59(1), 253-257.


Baumrind, D. (1985). Research using intentional deception: Ethical issues revisited. American Psychologist, 40, 165-174.


Bersoff, D. N. (1999). Ethical conflicts in psychology Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press, Pp. 355-392.


Bersoff, D. M., & Bersoff, D. N. (1999). Ethical perspectives in clinical research. In Kendall, Philip C.; Butcher, James N. (Eds) Handbook of research methods in clinical psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 31-53). New York, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons.


Blanck, P.D. et al. (1992). Scientific rewards and conflicts of ethical choices in human subjects research. American Psychologist, 47, 959-965.


Bryant, C. D. (1999). Gratuitous sex in field research: "Carnal lagniappe," or "inappropriate behavior." Deviant Behavior, 20(4), 325-329.


Butler, B. E., & Petrulis, J. (1999, Feb). Some further observations concerning Sir Cyril Burt. British Journal of Psychology., 90(1), 155-160.


Committee on Science Engineering and Public Policy. (1995). On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research (National Academy of Sciences). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Crespi, T. D. (1994). Student scholarship: In the best interests of the scholar. American Psychologist, 49(12), 1094-1095.


Drotar, D., Overholser, J. C., Levi, R., Walders, N., Robinson, J. R., Palermo, T. M., & Riekert, K. A. (2000). Ethical issues in conducting research with pediatric and clinical child populations in applied settings. In D. Drotar & et-al. (Eds.), Handbook of research in pediatric and clinical child psychology: Practical strategies and methods. Issues in clinical child psychology. (pp. 305-326). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.


Gergen, K. J. (1973). The codification of research ethics. Views of a doubting Thomas. American Psychologist, 28, 907-912.


Goode, E. (1999). Sex with informants as deviant behavior: An account and commentary. Deviant Behavior, 20(4), 301-324.


Kazdin, A. (1998). Ethical issues and guidelines for research. In Research design in clinical psychology 3rd. Edition (pp. 415-459). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.


Lynch, M. A, Glaser, D, Prior, V, & Inwood, V. (1999). Following up children who have been abused: Ethical considerations for research design. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 4(2), 68-75.


Mark, M. M., Eyssell, K. M., & Campbell, B. (1999). The ethics of data collection and analysis. In J. L. Fitzpatrick, M. Morris & et-al. (Eds.), Current and emerging ethical challenges in evaluation. New directions for evaluation: A publication of the American Evaluation Association, No. 82. (pp. 47-65). San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass Inc.


Martin, J. L., Perrott, K., Morris, E. M., & Romans, S. E. (1999). Participation in retrospective child sexual abuse research: Beneficial or harmful? What women think six years later. In L. M. Williams, V. L. Banyard & et-al. (Eds.), Trauma & memory (pp. 149-159). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, Inc.


Mash, E. J., & Krahn, G. L. (2000). Research strategies in child psychopathology. In M. Hersen, R. T. Ammerman & et-al. (Eds.), Advanced abnormal child psychology (2nd ed.) (pp. 101-130). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.


Miers, M. L. (1985). Current NIH perspectives on misconduct in science. American Psychologist, 40, 831-835.


Morris, M. (1999). Research on evaluation ethics: What have we learned and why is it important. In J. L. Fitzpatrick, M. Morris & et-al. (Eds.), Current and emerging ethical challenges in evaluation. New directions for evaluation: A publication of the American Evaluation Association, No. 82. (pp. 15-24). San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass Inc.


Rollin, B. E. (1985). The moral status of research animals in psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 920-926.


Rosnow, R. L. (1997). Hedgehogs, foxes, and the evolving social contract in psychological science: Ethical challenges and methodological opportunities. Psychological Methods, 2 (4), 345-356.


Russo, N. F. (1999). Putting the APA Publication Manual in context. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23(2), 399-402. [comment on controversies over “non-sexist” language]


Sales, B. D., & Lavin, M. (2000). Identifying conflicts of interest and resolving ethical dilemmas. In B. D. Sales & S. Folkman (Eds.), Ethics in research with human participants. (pp. 109-128). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.


Sieber, J. E. (1999). What makes a subject pool (un)ethical. In Chastain, Garvin D. ; Landrum, R. Eric (Eds); et-al. (1999). Protecting human subjects: Departmental subject pools and institutional review boards. (pp. 43-64). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association


Sieber, J. E. (1994). Will the new code help researchers to be more ethical? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 369-375.

 

Sovacool, B. (2005). Using criminalization and due process to reduce scientific misconduct. The American Journal of Bioethics, 5(5).


Wenger, N. S., Korenman, S. G., Berk, R., & Liu, H. (1999, Oct). Reporting unethical research behavior. Evaluation Review., 23(5), 553-570.


G-1 Institutional Review Boards


Beh, H. G. (2002). The role of institutional review boards in protecting human subjects: Are we really ready to fix a broken system . Law and Psychology Review, 26, 1-47.


Ceci, S. J, Peters, D. E, & Plotkin, J. (1985). Human subjects review, personal values, and the regulation of social science research. American Psychologist, 40, 994-1002.


Eaton, W. O. (1983). Reliability in ethics reviews : Some initial empirical findings. Canadian Psychology, 24, 14-18.


Gillespie, J. F. (1999). The why, what, how, and when of effective faculty use of institutional review boards. In Chastain, Garvin D. (Ed); Landrum, R. Eric (Ed); et-al. (1999). Protecting human subjects: Departmental subject pools and institutional review boards. (pp. 157-177). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association.


National Academy of Sciences (Institute of Medicine). (2002). Committee on Assessing the system of protecting human research participants. Responsible research: A systems approach to protecting research participants. Washington:D.C.: National Academy Press.


Oakes, J. M. (2002, Oct). Risks and wrongs in social science research: An evaluator's guide to the IRB. . Evaluation Review., 26(5), 443-479.


Parish, D., & Bruns, D. (2002). U.S. legal principles and confidentiality of the peer review process. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(21), 2839-2841.


Sieber, J. E. (2004). Empirical research on research ethics. Ethics and Behavior., 14(4), 397-412.


Webb, W. B. (1987). Human Subjects Review boards: A modest proposal. American Psychologist, 42, 516-517.


Wendler, D., Belsky, L., Thompson, K., & Emanuel, E. Quantifying the federal minimal risk standard: Implications for pediatric research without a prospect of direct benefit. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294, 826-832.


G-2 Ethical issues in drug trials


DuVal, G. (2004). Ethics in Psychiatric Research: Study Design Issues. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(1), 55-59.


Gillett, G. (2001, Nov-Dec). Unnecessary holes in the head. . IRB:Ethics and Human Research, 23(6), 1-6.


Halpern, S. D., Karlawish, J. H., & Berlin, J. A. (2002, Jul). The continuing unethical conduct of underpowered clinical trials. . Jama, 288(3), 358-362.


Horng, S., & Miller, F. (2002). Is placebo surgery unethical? New England Journal of Medicine, 347(2), 137-139.


Hrobjartson, A., & Gotzsche, P. (2001). Is the placebo powerless: An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 344(21), 1594-1602.


Hyman, S. E., & Shore, D. (2000, Apr). An NIMH perspective on the use of placebos. Biological Psychiatry., 47(8), 689-691.


Jewesson, P. (2003). Ghostwriters in the sky. Journal of Informed Pharmacotherapy, 13, 1-4.


Joffe, S., Cook, E., Clark, J., & Weeks, J. (2001). Quality of informed consent in cancer clinical trials: A cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, 358, 1772-1777.


Khan, A., Warner, H. A., & Brown, W. A. (2000). Symptom reduction and suicide risk in patients treated with placebo in antidepressant clinical trials: An analysis of the Food and Drug Administration database. Archives of General Psychiatry., 57(4), 311-317.


Kupfer, D. J., & Frank, E. (2002, Apr). Placebo in clinical trials for depression: Complexity and necessity. . Jama, 287(14), 1853-1854.


Leber, P. (2000). Placebo controls: No news is good news. Archives of General Psychiatry., 57(4), 319-320.


Lewis, J. A., Jonsson, B., Kreutz, G., Sampaio, C., & van Zwieten-Boot, B. (2002, Apr). Placebo-controlled trials and the Declaration of Helsinki. Lancet, 359(9314), 1337-1340.


Michels, K. B. (2000). The placebo problem remains. Archives of General Psychiatry., 57(4), 321-322.


Oquendo, M. A., Stanley, B., Ellis, S. P., & Mann, J. (2004). Protection of human subjects in intervention research for suicidal behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry., 161(9), 1558-1563.


Temple, R., & Ellenberg, S. (2000). Placebo-controlled trials and active-control trials in the evaluation of new treatments. Part 1: Ethical and scientific issues. Part 2: Practical Issues and specific cases. Annals of Internal Medicine, 133(6), 455-463;464-470.


Walsh, B., Seidman, S., Sysko, R., & Gould, M. (2002). Placebo response in studies of major depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(14), 1840-1847.


Weijer, C. (1999). Placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia: Are they ethical? Are they necessary. Schizophrenia Research, 35(3), 211-218.


Weingarten, M. A., Paul, M., & Leibovici, L. (2004). Assessing ethics of trials in systematic reviews. British Medical Journal, 328(7446), 1013-1014.


Young, S. N., Annable, L., & Stat, D. (2002, Nov). The ethics of placebo in clinical psychopharmacology: The urgent need for consistent regulation. . Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience., 27(5), 319-321


Zito, J. M., Derivan, A. T., & Greenhill, L. L. (2004). Making research data available: An ethical imperative demonstrated by the SSRI debacle. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(5), 512-514.


G-3 Conflicts of Interest

 

Association of American Medical Colleges. (2002). Task Force on Financial Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research:Protecting subjects, preserving trust, promoting progress. II: Principles and recommendations for oversight of an institution's financial interests in human subjects research. Washington:D.C.

 

Blumenthal, D. (2003). Academic-industrial relationships in the life sciences. New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 2452-2459.


Bok, D. (2003). Universities in the marketplace:The commercialization of higher education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Campbell, E., Claridge, B., Gokhale, M., & et al. (2002). Data-withholding in academic genetics:Evidence from a national survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 473-480.


Friedman, L., & Richter, E. (2004). Relationship between conflicts of interest and research results. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 1974, 51-56.


Nathan, D., & Weatherall, D. (2002/11/25). Academic freedom in clinical research. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 1368-1371.

 

Warner, T. D., & Roberts, L. W. (2004, Sep). Scientific integrity, fidelity and conflicts of interest in research. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 17(5), 381-385.


G-4 Informed Consent for Research - Vulnerable populations


Appelbaum, P., & Grisso, T. (2001). MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR). Sarasota,FL: Professional Resourch Press.


Capron, A. M. (1999). Ethical and human-rights issues in research on mental disorders that may affect decision-making capacity. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(18), 1430-1434.


Carpenter, W. T, & Conley, R. R. (1999). Sense and nonsense: An essay on schizophrenia research ethics. Schizophrenia Research, 35(3), 219-225


Fisher, C. B. (2002, Jul). Respecting and protecting mentally impaired persons in medical research. . Ethics and Behavior., 12(3), 280-283.


Fisher, C. B. (2004). Ethics in Drug Abuse and Related HIV Risk Research. Applied Developmental Science, 8(2), 91-103.


Kaminsky, A., Roberts, L. W., & Brody, J. L. (2003). Influences Upon Willingness to Participate in Schizophrenia Research: An Analysis of Narrative Data From 63 People With Schizophrenia. Ethics & Behavior, 13(3), 279-302.


Moser, D., Schultz, S., Arndt, S., & et al. (2002). Capacity to provide informed consent for participation in schizophrenia and HIV research. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(7), 1201-1207.


Moser, D., Schultz, S., Arndt, S., & et al. (2002). Capacity to provide informed consent for participation in schizophrenia and HIV research. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(7), 1201-1207.


Nedopil, N., Aldenhoff, J., Amelung, K., Eich, F., Fritze, J., Gastpar, M., Maier, W., & Moeller, H. (1999, Sep). Competence to give informed consent to clinical studies. Statement by the taskforce on "Ethical and Legal Questions"" of the Association for Neuropsychopharmacology and Pharmacopsychiatry ("Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie [AGNP]""). Pharmacopsychiatry., 32(5), 165-168.


Posever, T. A., & Chelmow, T. (2001, Jan-Feb). Informed consent for research in schizophrenia: An alternative for special studies. . IRB; Ethics and Human Research, 23(1), 10-15.


Poythress, N. (2002). Obtaining informed consent for research: A model for use with participants who are mentally ill. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, 30, 1-8.


Roberts, L. W. (2002, Sep). Ethics and mental illness research. . Psychiatric Clinics of North America., 25(3), 525-545.


Roberts, L. W. (2002, May). Informed consent and the capacity for voluntarism. . American Journal of Psychiatry., 159(5), 705-712.


Roberts, L. W., Warner, T. D., Anderson, C. T., Smithpeter Megan, V., & Rogers, M. K. (2004). Schizophrenia research participants' responses to protocol safeguards Recruitment, consent, and debriefing. Schizophrenia Research, 67(2-3), 283-291.


Rosenfeld, B. (2002, Jul). Competence to consent to research: Where psychology, ethics, and the law intersect. . Ethics and Behavior., 12(3), 284-287.


Van Staden, C., & Krüger, C. (2003). Incapacity to give informed consent due to mental disorder. Journal of Medical Ethics, 29, 41-43.


Weiss-Roberts, L., Warner, T., & Brody, J. (2002). Patient and psychiatrist ratings of hypothetical schizophrenia research protocols: Assessment of harm potential and factors influencing participation decisions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(4), 573-584.


Weiss-Roberts, L., Warner, T. D., & Brody, J. L. (2000). Perspectives of patients with schizophrenia and psychiatrists regarding ethically important aspects of research participation. American Journal of Psychiatry., 157(1), 67-74.


Wirshing, D., Wirshing, W., Marder, S., & et. al. (1998). Informed consent: Assessment of comprehension. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1508-1511.


H. Ethics education and other materials


Bernard, J. L. & Jara, C. S. (1986). The failure of clinical psychology graduate students to apply understood ethical principles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 313-315.


Brock, G. W. (1997). Reducing vulnerability to ethics code violations: An at-risk test for marriage and family therapists. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 23 (1), 87-89.


Canon, H. J. (1992). Psychologists as university administrator: Visible standard bearer. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 211-215.


Fox, R. E, Kovacs, A. L, & Graham S. R. (1985). Proposals for a revolution in the preparation and regulation of professional psychologists. American Psychologist, 40, 1042-1050.


Hansen, N. D, & Goldberg, S. G. (1999). Navigating the nuances: A matrix of considerations for ethical-legal dilemmas. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(5), 495-503.


Housman, L. M., & Stake, J. E. (1999, Jun). The current state of sexual ethics training in clinical psychology: Issues of quantity, quality, and effectiveness. Professional Psychology, 30(3), 302-311.


Howard, G. S. (1985). The role of values in the science of psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 255-265.


Johnson, W. B, & Corser, R. (1998). Learning ethics the hard way: Facing the ethics committee. Teaching of Psychology, 25(1), 26-28.


Jordan, A. E, & Meara, N. M. (1990). Ethics and the professional practice of psychologists: The role of virtues and principles. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 21, 107-114.


Keith-Spiegel, P. (1994). Teaching psychologists and the new APA Ethics Code: Do we fit in? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 362-368.


Keith-Spiegel, P. (1977). Violation of ethical principles due to ignorance or poor professional judgment versus willful disregard. Professional Psychology, 8, 288-296.


Kessler, J. W. (1983). Beyond the guidelines of ethical/legal standards : Update. Canadian Psychology, 24, 1-7.


Kitchener, K. S. (1992). Psychologist as teacher and mentor: Affirming ethical values throughout the curriculum. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 190-195.


Knapp, S., & Sturm, C. (2002, Apr). Ethics education after licensing: Ideas for increasing diversity in content and process. [Journal Article]. Ethics and Behavior., 12(2), 157-166. US: Lawrence Erlbaum.


Minn, M. R., Beins, B. C., Rosnow, R. L., Strohmetz, D. B., Skleder, A. A., Kallgren, C. A., Tauber, R. T., & Herzog, H. A. (1999). Teaching ethics. In Ware, Mark E.; Brewer, Charles L.(Eds.) Handbook for teaching statistics and research methods (2nd ed.). (pp. 132-153). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.


Nagy, T. F. (2000). Ethics in plain English: An illustrative casebook for psychologists. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.


Pipes, R. B., Holstein, J., & Aguirre, M. (2005). Examining the personal-professional distinction: Ethics codes and the difficulty of drawing a boundary. American Psychologist, 60(4), 325-334.


Pope, K. S. & Vetter, V. A. (1992). Ethical dilemmas encountered by members of the American Psychological Association: A national survey. American Psychologist, 47, 397-411.


Pryzwansky, W. B, & Wendt, R. N. (1999). Professional and ethical issues in psychology: Foundations of practice. New York, NY, USA: W. W. Norton and Co, Inc.


Smith, T. S, McGuire, J. M, Abbott, D. W, & Blau, Burton I. (1991). Clinical ethical decision making: An investigation of the rationales used to justify doing less than one believes one should. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 22(3), 235-239.


Theaman, M. (1984). The impact of peer review on professional practice. American Psychologist, 39, 4, 406-414.


Tymchuk, A. J, Drapkin, R. R, Major-Kingsley, S, Ackerman, A. B, Coffman, E. W, & Baum M. S. (1982). Ethical decision making and psychologists' attitudes toward training in ethics. Professional Psychology, 13, 412-421.


Watson, A. S. (1979). Some psychological forces in the ebb and flow of professional status: Implications for training and regulation. Paper presented: Boalt Hall, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, California, 1979


Welfel, E. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.


Welfel, E.R, & Kitchener, K.S. (1992). Introduction to the Special section: Ethics Education--An agenda for the '90s. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 179-181.


I. Licensure


Johnson, W. B., Porter, K., Campbell, C. D., & Kipko, E. N. (2005). Character and fitness requirements for professional psychologists: An examination of state licensing application forms. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 367(6), 654-662.


Herbsleb, J. D, & Sales, B. D, & Overcast, T. D. (1985). Challenging licensure and certification. American Psychologist, 40, 1165-1178.


Hogan, D. B. (1983). The effectiveness of licensing- History, evidence,and recommendations. Law and Human Behavior, 7, 117-138.


Howard, A, & Lowman, R. L. (1985). Should industrial/ organizational psychologists be licensed? American Psychologist, 40, 40-47.


Matarazzo, J. (1977). Higher education, professional accreditation and licensure. American Psychologist, 32, 856-860.


Stern, S. (1984). Professional training and professional competence: a critique of current thinking. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2, 230-243.


Woody Jane D. (1990). Resolving ethical concerns in clinical practice: Toward a pragmatic model. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 16(2), 133-150.


Williams, M. (2001). The question of psychologists' maltreatment by state licensing boards: Overcoming denial and seeking remedies. Professional Psychology, 32(4), 341-344.


II: Fundamental legal regulation -- Malpractice


Anderson, R. M. J, Needels, T. L, & Hall, H. V. (Eds). (1998). Avoiding ethical misconduct in psychology specialty areas. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.


Anonymous. (1986). Four psychiatric malpractice rulings. Mental & Physical Disability Law Reporter, 10, 127-128.


Ansell, C, & Ross, H. L. (1990). "When laws and values conflict: A dilemma for psychologists'': Reply.American Psychologist, 45, 399.


Ash, P. (2002, Oct). Malpractice in child and adolescent psychiatry. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America., 11(4), 869-886.


Barnett, J. E., & Neel, M. L. (2000, Dec). Must all psychologists study psychopharmacology? Professional Psychology, 31(6), 619-627. US: American Psychological Assn.


Barsky, A. E., & Gould, J. W. (2002). Clinicians in court: A guide to subpoenas, depositions, testifying, and everything else you need to know. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.


Binder, R. L. (2002, Nov). Liability for the psychiatrist expert witness. American Journal of Psychiatry., 159(11), 1819-1825.


Brodsky, S. L. (1978). Buffalo Bill's defunct now: Vulnerability of mental health professionals to malpractice. In W. E. Barton & C. J. Sanborn (Eds.), Law and the mental health professions: Friction at the interface. New York :International Universities Press, Pp. 119-132.


Caudill, B. (2004) Malpractice & Licensing Pitfalls for Therapists: A Defense Attorney's List. Accessed from http://www.kspope.com/ethics/index.php.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (2003). Legal issues in the professional practice of psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(6), 595-600.


Deardorff, W. W, Cross, H. J, & Hupprich W. R. (1984). Malpractice liability in psychotherapy: Client and practitioner perspectives. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 15, 590-600.


Detherage v. State of Washington Examining Board of Psychology. (1997) (No. 65639-9). Sup. Ct. WA. [A critical modern case on the limits of immunity for expert witnesses. Detherage was immune from civil suit re his testimony on child custody, but was not immune from disciplinary review by the licensing board for failure to meet standards of the profession]


Douglas, K. S., & Koch, W. J. (2001). Psychological injuries and tort litigation: Sexual victimization and motor vehicle accidents. In R. A. Schuller & J. R. P. Ogloff (Eds.), Introduction to psychology and law: Canadian perspectives. (pp. 405-426). (pp. 405-426). Toronto, ON Canada: University of Toronto Press.


Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2004). Ethical and Legal Perspectives and Risk Management. In E. P. Shafranske & C. A. Falender (Eds.), Clinical supervision: A competency-based approach. (pp. 151-194). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Golding, S. L. (1998). Introduction to the law of torts and Negotiating the Gauntlet of Law, Ethics and Professional Practice, Pp. 1-26. Unpublished materials, included in xeroxed materials.


Gupta, S., Frank, B., & Madhusoodanan, S. (2002, Apr). Tardive dyskinesia: Legal issues and consent. Psychiatric Annals, 32(4), 245-248.


Gutheil, T. G., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2000). Clinical handbook of psychiatry and the law (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA, US: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.


Jacob-Timm, S, & Hartshorne, T. S. (1998). Ethics and law for school psychologists (3rd ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.


Klein, J. I, & S. I. Glover. (1983). Psychiatric malpractice. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 6, 131-157.


Knapp, S, & Vandecreek, L. (1981). Behavioral medicine: Its malpractice risks for psychologists. Professional Psychology, 12, 77-683.


Knapp, S. J, Vandecreek, L. & Zirkel, P. A. (1985). Legal research techniques: What the psychologist needs to know. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 363-372.


Kroll, J., & Mackenzie, T. B. (1983, Jan). When psychiatrists are liable: Risk management and violent patients. . Hospital and Community Psychiatry., 34(1), 29-37.


Leesfield, I. H. (1987). Negligence of mental health professionals: What conduct breaches standards of care. Trial, 23, 57-61.


McCafferty, M. D, & S. M. Meyer. (1985). Medical malpractice bases of liability New York : Shepard's/McGraw-Hill pp. 1-277.


Miller, M. C., Tabakin, R., & Schimmel, J. (2000, Sep). Managing risk when risk is greatest. Harvard Review of Psychiatry., 8(3), 154-159. England: Oxford Univ Press.


Monahan, J, & Walker, L. (1994). Social science in law: Cases and materials (3rd Edition). Foundation Press: Westbury, New York. [”For social scientists: How to find the law; Pp. 611-616]


Pope, K. S, & Bajt, T. R. (1988). When laws and values conflict: A dilemma for psychologists.American Psychologist, 43, 828-829.


Preisman, R. C, Steinberg, M. D, Rummans, T. A, Youngner, S. J, Leeman, C. P, Lederberg, M. S, Cohen, M. A. A, Surman, O. S, & Blum, J. A. (1999). An annotated bibliography for ethics training in consultation-liaison psychiatry. Psychosomatics, 40(5), 369-379.


Sidley, N. T. (Ed.) (1985). Law and ethics: A guide for the health professional. New York: Human Science Press. [ Perlin, "Torts", 149-178; Shea and Sidley, "Malpractice", 179-230; and Shea, "Finding the law: Legal research and citation", 411-430; Shea and Sidley, "Coping with the medical malpractice problem", 231-258; Petrila, "Special legal problems in mental health", 325-350].


Simon, R. I. (1992). Clinical psychiatry and the law, Second Edition. Washington, D. C. : American Psychiatric Press, Inc. (Highly recommended as a comprehensive overview of various malpractice problems; not required for the course, but you should own this book!)


Slovenko, R. (1981). Malpractice in psychiatry and related fields. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 9, 5-63.


Slovenko, R. (2002). Psychiatry in law/Law in psychiatry. New York, NY, US: Brunner-Routledge.


Smith, S. R, & R. G. Meyer. (1987). Law, behavior, and mental health: policy and practice New York : New York University Press pp. 1-188. (Contains extended discussions of various malpractice issues as they pertain to psychology).


Stout, C., Levant, R., Reed, G., & Murphy, M. (2001). Contracts: A primer for psychologists. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 32(1), 88-91.


Studdert, D. M., & Brennan, T. (1997). Deterrence in a divided world: Emerging problems for malpractice law in an era of managed care. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 15, 21-48.


Van Eenwyk, J. R. (1990). When laws and values conflict: Comment on Pope and Bajt. American Psychologist, 45, 399-400.


Williams, M. H. (2000, Feb). Victimized by "victims": A taxonomy of antecedents of false complaints against psychotherapists. Professional Psychology, 31(1), 75-81.


Woody, R. H. (2000). Professional ethics, regulatory licensing, and malpractice complaints. In F. W. Kaslow & et-al. (Eds.), Handbook of couple and family forensics: A sourcebook for mental health and legal professionals. (pp. 461-474). New York, NY, US: John Wiley & Sons.


Woody, R. H. (2000). What to do when you receive an ethics, legal (malpractice), or licensing complaint. In L. Vandecreek, T. L. Jackson & et-al. (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 18. (pp. 213-229). Sarasota, FL, US: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.


III: Confidentiality and privilege


Appelbaum, P. (2002). Privacy in psychiatric treatment: Threats and responses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(11), 1809-1818.


Debry v. Goates, 999 P. 2d 582 (Utah Court of Appeals 2000)


DeKraai, M. B, & Sales, B. D. (1984). Confidential communications of psychotherapists. Psychotherapy, 21, 293-318.


Eastman, N. L. (1987). Clinical confidentiality: A contractual basis. Issues in Criminological & Legal Psychology, 11, 49-57.


Everstine, L, Everstine, D, Heymann, G, True, R, Frey, D, Johnson, H, & Seiden, R.(1980). Privacy and confidentiality in psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 35, 828-840.


Glosoff, H, Herlihy, S, Herlihy, B, & Spence, E. (1997). Privileged communication in the psychologist-client relationship. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28 (6), 573-582.


Golding, S. L. (1998). Introduction to the law of torts and Negotiating the Gauntlet of Law, Ethics and Professional Practice, Pp. 47-76. Unpublished materials, included in xeroxed materials.


Gutheil, T. G. (1990). Ethical issues in confidentiality. Psychiatric Annals, 20(10), 605-611.


Jaffee v. Redmond. 116 S. Ct. 1923 (1996) No. 95-266 [The first Supreme Court decision to recognize psychotherapist-patient privilege in federal courts].


Knapp, S, & VandeCreek, L. (1997). Jaffe v. Redmond: The Supreme Court recognizes a psychotherapist-patient privilege. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28 (6), 567-572.


Meyer, R. G, Landis, E. R, & Hays, J. R. Law for the psychotherapist. New York: Norton. Pp. 32-56. [primarily on confidentiality and privilege].


Miller, D. J, & Thelen, M. H. (1987). Confidentiality in psychotherapy: History, issues, and research. Psychotherapy, 24, 704-711.


Mosher, P. W., & Swire, P. P. (2002, Sep). The ethical and legal implications of Jaffee v Redmond and the HIPAA medical privacy rule for psychotherapy and general psychiatry. . Psychiatric Clinics of North America., 25(3), 575-584.


Rachlin, S, & P. S. Appelbaum. (1983). The limits of confidentiality. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34, 589-590.


Shah, S. A. (1970). Privileged communications, confidentiality, and privacy: confidentiality. Professional Psychology 159-164.


Shah, S. A. (Not Given). Privileged communications, confidentiality, and privacy: privileged communications. Professional Psychology 56-69.


Shah, S. A. (1970). Privileged communications, confidentiality, and privacy: privacy. Professional Psychology 243-252.


Shuman, D., & Foote, W. (1999). Jaffee v. Redmond's impact :Life after the Supreme Court's recognition of a psychotherapist-patient privilege. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 30(5), 479-487.


Task Force on Confidentiality. (1979). Model law on confidentiality of health and social service records. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 138-147.


Wettstein, R. M. (1994). Confidentiality. In J. M. Oldham & M. B. Riba (Eds.), Review of Psychiatry, Vol. 13 (pp. 343-364). American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.


Winick, B. J. (1996). The psychotherapist-patient privilege: A therapeutic jurisprudence view. University of Miami Law Review, 50, 249-264.


Winslade, W. & Ross, J. (1985). Privacy, confidentiality and autonomy in psychotherapy. Nebraska Law Review, 64, 578-636.


Woody, R. H. (1999). Domestic violations of confidentiality. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(6), 607-610. [Not reproduced for you, but highly recommended in this day of modern communications]


A. Mandatory reporting -- children and other vulnerable populations


!Utah Code Annotated (1998). Duty to report person suspected of having communicable disease. §26-6-6.


Anderson, E, Levine, M, Sharma, A, Feerretti, L, Steinberg, K, & Wallach, L. (1993). Coercive uses of mandatory reporting in therapeutic relationships. Behavioral Scineces and the Law, 11, 335-345.


Barksdale, C. 1989). Child abuse reporting: A clinical dilemma? Smith College Studies in Social Work, 59, 170-182.


Behnke, S., & Kinscherff, R. (2002, May). Must a psychologist report past child abuse? Monitor on Psychology, May, 56-57.


Bromley, M. A, & Riolo, J. A. (1988). Complying with mandated child protective reporting: A challenge for treatment professionals. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 5, 83-96.


Brosig, C. L, & Kalichman, S. C. (1992). Child abuse reporting decisions: Effects of statutory wording of reporting requirements. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 486-492


Brosig, C. L, & Kalichman, S. C. (1992). Clinician's reporting of suspected child abuse: A review of the empirical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 155-168.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1995). Twenty-four questions (and answers) about professional practice in the area of child abuse. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 377-385. [Excellent discussion of various aspects of treatment and assessment of children where child sexual abuse, privilege and mandatory reporting issues arise]


Crenshaw, W. B, & Lichtenberg, J. W. (1993). Child abuse and the limits of confidentiality: Forewarning practices. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 11, 181-192.


Gilbert, D. A. (1986). The ethics of mandatory elder abuse reporting statutes. Advances in Nursing Science, 8, 51-62.


Hoagwood, K. (1994). The certificate of confidentiality at the National Institute of Mental Health: Discretionary considerations in its applicability in research on child and adolescent mental disorders. Special Issue: Reporting and referring child and adolescent research participants. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 123-131. [Good starting place for analyzing the conundrum of mandatory reporting in a research context]


Kalichman, S. C, Craig, M. E, & Follingstad, D. R. (1988). Mental health professionals and suspected cases of child abuse: An investigation of factors influencing reporting. Community Mental Health Journal, 24, 43-51.


Kalichman, S. C, Craig, M. E, & Follingstad, D. R. (1989). Factors influencing the reporting of father-child sexual abuse: Study of licensed practicing psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 20, 84-89.


Kalichman, S. C, Craig, M. E. (1991). Professional psychologists' decisions to report suspected child abuse: Clinician and situation influences. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 22(1), 84-89.


Kalichman, S. C, Craig, M. E, & Follingstad, D. R. (1990). Professionals' adherence to mandatory child abuse reporting laws: Effects of responsibility attribution, confidence ratings, and situational factors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14, 69-77.


Kalichman, S. C, & Brosig, C. L. (1992). The effects of statutory requirements on child maltreatment reporting: A comparison of two state laws. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 284-296.


Kalichman, S. C, & Brosig, C. L. (1993). Practicing psychologists' interpretations of and compliance with child abuse reporting laws. Law and Human Behavior, 17, 83-93.


Kalichman, S. C. (1999). Mandated reporting of suspected child abuse (2nd ed.) . Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association Press.


Kalichman, S. C. (1990). Reporting laws, confidentiality, and clinical judgment: Reply to Ansell and Ross. American Psychologist, 45(11), 1273.


Kelly, R. J. (1987). Limited confidentiality and the pedophile. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 38, 1046-1048.


Kerig, P. K, & Fedorowicz, A. E. (1999). Assessing maltreatment of children of battered women: Methodological and ethical considerations. Child Maltreatment, 4(2), 103-115.


Miller, R. D, & Weinstock, R. (1987). Conflict of interest between therapist-patient confidentiality and the duty to report sexual abuse of children. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 5, 161-174.


Priest, R, & Wilcox, S. A (1988). Confidentiality and the child sexual offender: Unique challenges and dilemmas. Family Therapy, 15, 107-113.


Racusin, R. J, & Felsman, J. K. (1986). Reporting child abuse: The ethical obligation to inform parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 485-489.


Riggert, S. C, & Meyer, R. G. (1992). Obligations to break mental health confidences: Legal versus mental health views. Forensic Reports, 5, 317-333.


Sieber, J. E. (1994). Issues presented by mandatory reporting requirements to researchers of child abuse and neglect. Ethics and Behavior, 4(1), 1-22. [Another excellent starting place for the mandatory reporting-research context conundrum]


Small, M., Lyons, P., & Guy, L. (2002). Liability issues in child abuse and neglect reporting statutes. Professional Psychology, 33(1), 13-18.


Stadler, H. A. (1989). Balancing ethical responsibilities: Reporting child abuse and neglect. Counseling Psychologist, 17, 102-110.


State of Utah. (1998). Human Services Code -- Abuse, Neglect or Exploitation of Disabled Adult. Utah Code Annotated §62A-3-301 et seq.


State v. Locke. 502 N.W. 2d 891 (Wis. App. 1993) [one of the few cases interpreting reason to believe as well as the conflict between therapeutic confidentiality and mandatory reporting]


United States Code 42 U.S.C. 6a(II)(A)(241)(d). Authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to issue confidentiality certificates for the protection of privacy of individuals who are research subjects. [Important for those who do research with forensic populations or in areas, such as sexual abuse/exploitation, where mandatory reporting may be a problem with subject’s honesty. See CFR 41(D)(I)(A)(2a) for implementing regulations and Sieber’s article above for further information]


Urquiza, A. J. (1991). Retrospective methodology in family violence research: Our duty to report past abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6(1), 119-126.


Utah Code Annotated (1998). Child abuse reporting act. §62a-4a-401 et seq.


Veilleux, D. R. (1992). Validity, construction, and application of state statute requiring doctor or other person to report abuse. 73 ALR 4th 782-855. [a valuable resource, always updated]


Weinstein, B., Levine, M., Kogan, N., Harkavy-Friedman, J. M., & Miller, J. M. (2001). Therapist reporting of suspected child abuse and maltreatment: Factors associated with outcome. . American Journal of Psychotherapy., 55(2), 219-233.


Zellman, G. L. (1990). Report decision making patterns among mandated child abuse reporters. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14(3), 325-336.


B. Mandatory reporting -- Tarasoff and potential violence


!Spring, R. L, Lacoursiere, R. B. & Weissenberger, G. (1990). Patients, psychiatrists and lawyers: Law and the mental health system. Chapter 3 (Very highly recommended, but not technically required -the patient-mental health professional relationship). Cincinnati: Anderson, Pp. 143-220 [Tarasoff, privilege and confidentiality from a legal perspective].


Appelbaum, P, & Rosenbaum, A. (1989). Tarasoff and the researcher: Does the duty to protect apply in the research setting? American Psychologist, 44, 885-894.


Appelbaum, P. S, & Zoltek-Jick, R. (1996). Psychotherapists' duties to third parties: Ramona and beyond. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 457-466.


Beck, J. C. (1987). The potentially violent patient: Legal duties, clinical practice, and risk management. Psychiatric Annals, 17, 695-699.


Binder, R., & McNiel, D. (1996). Application of the Tarasoff ruling and its effect on the victim and therapeutic relationship. Psychiatric Services, 47, 1212-1215.


Borum, R. (1996). Improving the clinical practice of violence risk assessment: Technology, guidelines, and training. American Psychologist, 51(9), 945-956.


Borum, R., & Reddy, M. (2001). Assessing violence risk in Tarasoff situations: A fact-based model of inquiry. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 19, 375-385.


Bourne, R. (1995). Ethical and legal dilemmas in the management of family violence. Ethics and Behavior, 5, 261-271.


Burkemper, E. M. (2002, Apr). Family therapists' ethical decision-making processes in two duty-to-warn situations. . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy., 28(2), 203-211.


Goldman, M. J, & Gutheil, T. G. (1994). The misperceived duty to report patients' past crimes. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 22(3), 407-410.


Goodman, T. A. (1985). From Tarasoff to Hopper: The evolution of the therapist's duty to protect third parties. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 3, 195-225.


Griffith, E. E, Zonana, H, Pinsince, A. J, & Adams, A. K. (1988). Institutional response to inpatients' threats against the President. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 39, 1166-1171.


Gutheil, T. G. (2001). Moral justification for Tarasoff-type warnings and breach of confidentiality: A clinician's perspective. . Behavioral Sciences and the Law., 19(3), 345-353.


Higgins v. Salt Lake County, 855 P.2d 231 (Supreme Court of Utah 1993) (No. 900255)


Howell, R. J. (1988). Duty to warn: A case study in child custody. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6, 37-44.


Leeman, C. P., Cohen, M. A., & Parkas, V. (2001, Nov-Dec). Should a psychiatrist report a bus driver's alcohol and drug abuse? An ethical dilemma. . General Hospital Psychiatry., 23(6), 333-336.


Leong, G. B, Eth, S, & Silva, J. A. (1992). The psychotherapist as witness for the proesecution: The criminalization of Tarasoff. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1011-1015.


Leong, G.B, Eth, S, & Silva, J.A. (1994). Silence or death: The limits of confidentiality when a psychotherapist is threatened by the patient. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 22(2), 235-244.


Menendez v. Superior Court of Los Angeles. 3 Cal 4th 435 [Sup. Ct. CA 1992] [Psychotherapeutic privilege constructively waived if facts underlying the privilege should have triggered a Tarasoff warning, even if none given -- see also People v. Clark and People v. Wharton]


Meyers, C. J. (1987). Hard cases: The "duty to warn'' as a felt necessity of our time. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 15, 189-204.


Miller, R. D, Doren, D. M, Van Rybroek, G. J, & Meier, G. J. (1988). Emerging problems for staff associated with the release of potentially dangerous forensic patients. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 16, 309-320.


Mills, M. J, Sullivan, G, & Eth, S. (1987). Protecting third parties: A decade after Tarasoff. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 68-74.


Monahan, J, & Steadman, H. (1994). Toward a rejuvenation of risk assessment research. In J. Monahan & H. Steadman, Violence and mental disorder: Developments in risk assessment Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Monahan, J, Appelbaum, P. S, Mulvey, E. P, Robbins, P. C, & Lidz, C. W. (1993). Ethical and legal duties conducting research on vilence: Lessons from the MacArthur Risk Assessment Study. Violence and Victims, 8, 387-396.


Monahan, J. (1993). Limiting therapist exposure to Tarasoff liability. American Psychologist, 48, 242-250.

 

Utah Code Annotated (1998). Limitation of therapist's duty to warn. §78-14a-102. [See Higgins v. Salt Lake County and Wilson v. Valley Mental Health, below, especially the rather infamous “We are troubled that section 78-14a-102 may inadvertently operate to create an incentive on the part of therapists to avoid diagnostically appropriate examinations that could reveal specific threats and result in a consequent duty to take preventive measures. But the language of the statute is plain. Therefore, our case law must yield.”]


People v. Clark. 789 P. 2d 127 [Sup. Ct. CA 1990]


People v. Wharton. 809 P. 2d 290 [Sup. Ct. CA 1991]


Perlin, M. (1992). Tarasoff and the dilemma of the dangerous patient: New directions for the 1990's. Law and Psychology Review, 16, 29-63.


Piazza, N. J, & Yeager, R. D. (1990). The mental health counselor and "duty to warn." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 12, 120-128.


Poythress, N, & Brodsky, S. (1993). In the wake of a negligent release suit: An investigation of the professional consequences and institutional impact on a state psychiatric hospital. Law and Human Behavior, 16, 155-174.


Quattrocchi, M., & Schopp, R. (2005). Tarasaurus rev: A standard of care that could not adapt. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 109-137.


Rosenhan, D.L, Teitelbaum, T.W, Teitelbaum, K.W, & Davidson, M. (1993). Warning third parties: The ripple effect of Tarasoff. Pacific Law Journal, 24, 1165-1232.


Schmid, D, Appelbaum, P. S, Roth, L. H, & et al. (1983). Confidentiality in psychiatry: A study of the patient's view. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34, 353-355.


Schopp, R.(1991). The psychotherapist's duty to protect the public: The appropriate standard and the foundation in legal theory and empirical research. Nebraska Law Review, 70, 327-360.


Tishler, C., Gordon, L., & Landry-Meyer, L. (2000). Managing the violent patient:A guide for psychologists and other mental health professionals. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 31(1), 34-41.


Treadway, J. (1990). Tarasoff in the therapeutic setting. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 41, 88-89.


Truscott, D. (1993). The psychotherapist's duty to protect: An annotated bibliography. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 21 (2), 221-244.


VandeCreek, L, & Knapp, S. (1993). Tarasoff and beyond: Legal and clinical considerations in the treatment of life-endangering patients (rev. ed.). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange.


Walcott, D. M., Cerundolo, P., & Beck, J. C. (2001). Current analysis of the Tarasoff duty: An evolution towards the limitation of the duty to protect. . Behavioral Sciences and the Law., 19(3), 325-343.


Wallace, R. E. (1988). Abolish the duty to protect: It's time to release the scapegoats. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6, 55-63.


Wettstein, R. M. (1992). A psychiatric perspective on Washington's sexually violent predators statute. University of Puget Sound Law Review, 15, 597-633.


Wilson v. Valley Mental Health, 969 P.2d 416 (Supreme Court of Utah 1999) (No. 970308)


C. Sexual exploitation of clients and impaired therapists


Caddy v. State of Florida [Board of Psychology], No. 1D99-1108 (District Court of Appeal, First Division 2000) [In perpetuity rule to narrow without case by case consideration of the vulnerability of client]


Campbell V. American Psychological Association, 68 F. Supp. 2d 765 (W.D. Texas [Midland] 1999) (No. MO-99-CA-16) [Summary judgment for APA in suit over expulsion for dual role relationship–prior sexual relationship with client]


Celenza, A, & Hilsenroth, M. (1997). Personality characteristics of mental health professionals who have engaged in sexualized dual relationships: A Rorschach investigation. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61 (1), 90-107.


Gonsiorek, J.C. (1997). Suggested remediations to “Remediation.” Profesional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 300-303.


Layman, M.J, McNamara, J. R. (1997). Remediation for ethics violations: Focus on psychotherapists’ sexual contact with clients. Profesional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 281-292.


O'Connor, M. (2001). On th etiology and effective management of professional distress and impairment among psychologists. Professional Psychology, 32(4), 345-350.


Richards, K. A., & Noblin, C. D. (1999). Sanctions for ethics violations: Does licensure or socioeconomic status matter. Ethics and Behavior., 9(2), 119-126.


Schouten, R. (2000). Impaired physicians: Is there a duty to report to state licensing boards. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 8(1), 36-39.


Somer, E, & Saadon, M. (1999). Therapist-client sex: Clients' retrospective reports. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(5), 504-509.


Strasburger, L. H, Jorgenson, L, & Randles, R. (1990). Mandatory reporting of sexually exploitative psychotherapists. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 18(4), 379-384.


State of California (1995). Business and Professions Code §728, §337.[Requiring a brochure to be discussed with the client who reveals prior abuse, but not mandatory reporting]


State of Minnesota. (1994). Action for Sexual Exploitation by Psychotherapists. Minnesota Statutes 148A.01 et seq,


State of Minnesota. (1994). Reporting obligations; Reporting of maltreatment of vulnerable adults; Prohibited conduct. Minnesota Statutes 148B.07 et seq.; 626.557 et seq.; 148B.68,


State of Rhode Island (1994). Rhode Island General Laws §5-63.1-1 and 5-63.1-2.


State of Texas (1996). Texas Annotated Code of Civil Practice. §81.001(1) et seq.


State of Wisconsin (1994). Wisconsin Statutes, §940.22(1)(i) et seq.; §895.70(1)(e) et seq.


Wagner, A. M. (1999, Jun). Peer reporting of ethical violations: Factors contributing to the decision-making process. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(12-B), 6499.


D. AIDS


Adler, G, & Beckett, A. (1989). Psychotherapy of the patient with an HIV infection: Some ethical and therapeutic dilemmas. Psychosomatics, 30, 203-208.


Anderson, J. R., & Barret, R. L. (2001). Ethics in HIV-related psychotherapy: Clinical decision making in complex cases. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.


Appelbaum, P. S. (1988). AIDS, psychiatry, and the law. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 39, 13-14.


Botello, T, Weinberger, L. E, & Gross, B. H. (1990). A proposed exception to the AIDS confidentiality laws for psychiatric patients. 41st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (1989, Las Vegas, Nevada). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 35(3), 653-660.


Chenneville, T. (2000, Dec). HIV, confidentiality, and duty to protect: A decision-making model. Professional Psychology, 31(6), 661-670.


Chessa, F, & Walker, R. M. (1998). Ethics and HIV in community mental health settings. In (M. D. Knox, & C. H. Sparks & et-al. (Eds.), HIV and community mental health care (Pp. 46-60). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins.


Cohen, E. D. (1990). Confidentiality, counseling, and clients who have AIDS: Ethical foundations of a model rule. Journal of Counseling & Development, 68, 282-286.


Cohen, E. D. (1997). Confidentiality, HIV, and the ACA Code of Ethics. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 19 (4), 349-363.


Committee for the Protection of Human Participants in Research (1986). Ethical issues in psychological research on AIDS. IRB: A Review of Human Subjects Research, 8, 8-10.


Dickson, D. T. (1998). Confidentiality and privacy in social work: A guide to the law for practitioners and students. New York, NY: The Free Press.


Dilley, J. W, Shelp, E. E, & Batki, S. L. (1986). Psychiatric and ethical issues in the care of patients with AIDS. Psychosomatics, 27, 562-566.


Dyer, A. R. (1988). AIDS, ethics, and psychiatry. Special Issue: Ethical treatment of patients with AIDS. Psychiatric Annals, 18, 577-581.


Elfand, L. M. (1997). Psychologists' beliefs around protecting third parties and maintaining confidentiality with hiv patients. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (8-B), 5322.


Emanuel, E. J. (1988). Do physicians have an obligation to treat patients with AIDS? New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 1686-1690.


Ginzburg, H. M, & Gostin, L. (1986). Legal and ethical issues associated with HTLV-III diseases. Psychiatric Annals, 16, 180-185.


Gray, L. A, & Harding, A. K. (1988). Confidentiality limits with clients who have the AIDS virus. Journal of Counseling & Development, 66, 219-223.


Haimowitz, S. (1996). An overview of legal issues. In F. Cournos, & N. Bakalar & et-al. (Eds.), AIDS and people with severe mental illness: A handbook for mental health professionals. (Pp. 205-215). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.


Hermann, D. H. J. & Gagliano, R. D. (1989). AIDS, therapeutic confidentiality and warning third parties. Maryland Law Review, 48, 55-76.


Hook, M. K., & Cleveland, J. L. (1999). To tell or not to tell: Breaching confidentiality with clients with HIV and AIDS. Ethics and Behavior., 9(4), 365-381.


Huprich, S., Fuller, K., & Schneider, R. (2003). Divergent ethical perspectives on the duty-to-warn principle with HIV patients. Ethics & Behavior, 737(3-4), 263-278.


Kelly, K. (1987). AIDS and ethics: An overview. General Hospital Psychiatry, 9, 331-340.


Kermani, E. J, & Weiss, B. A. (1989). AIDS and confidentiality: Legal concept and its application in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 43, 25-31.


Knapp, S, & VandeCreek, L. (1990). Application of the duty to protect to HIV positive patients. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 21(3), 161-166.


Knapp, S, & VandeCreek, L. (1989). What psychologists need to know about AIDS. Journal of Training & Practice in Professional Psychology, 3, 3-16.


Kozlowski, N. F, Rupert, P. A, & Crawford, I. (1998). Psychotherapy with HIV-infected clients: Factors influencing notification of third parties. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 35 (1), 105-115.


Lamb, D. H, Clark, C, Drumheller, P, & Fizzell, K. et al. (1989). Applying Tarasoff to AIDS-related psychotherapy issues. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 20, 37-43.


Landesman, S. H. (1986). The ethical obligations of research subjects to be informed of their HIV status. IRB: A Review of Human Subjects Research, 8, 9.


Loewy, E. H. (1988). Risk and obligation: Health professionals and the risk of AIDS. Special Issue: AIDS: Principles, practices, and politics. Death Studies, 12, 531-545.


Margolin, G. (1998). Ethical issues in marital therapy. In R. M. J. Anderson, T. Needels & et al. (Eds.), Avoiding misconduct in psychology specialty areas. (Pp. 78-94). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.


McGuire, J, Nieri, D, Abbott, D, Sheridan, K, & et al. (1995). Do Tarasoff principles apply in AIDS-related psychotherapy? Ethical decision making and the role of therapist homophobia and perceived client dangerousness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26 (6), 608-611.


Melchert, T. P., & Patterson, M. M. (1999). Duty to warn and intervention with HIV-positive clients. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(2), 180-186.


Melton, G. B. (1988). Ethical and legal issues in AIDS-related practice. Special Issue: Psychology and AIDS. American Psychologist, 43, 941-947.


Meyer, R. G, & Leavenworth, S. G. (1998). HIV/AIDS and mental capacity: Legal and ethical issues. In W. G. van Gorp, S. L. Buckingham & et-al. (Eds.), Practitioner's Guide to the Neuropsychiatry of HIV/AIDS (W. G. van Gorp, S. L. Buckingham & et-al, Eds.) (311-332). New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Miceli-Mullen, J. (1998). HIV and the law. In M. D. Knox & C. H. Sparks & et-al. (Eds.), HIV and community mental health. (Pp. 37-45). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins.


Morrison, C. F. (1989). AIDS: Ethical implications for psychological intervention. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 20, 166-171.


Pais, S. (1997). When do marriage and family therapists tell: An investigation of factors related to therapists' breaking confidence when clients disclose high risks-to-hiv/aids sexual behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, 57 (7-A), 3270.


Peter, M. I. (1998). Psychology, AIDS and ethics: A discussion of selected practice issues. In R. M. J. Anderson, T. Needels & et al. (Eds.), Avoiding misconduct in psychology specialty areas. (Pp. 159-165). Springfield,IL: Charles C. Thomas.


Peterson, C. C, & Siddle, D. A. (1995). Confidentiality issues in psychological research. Australian Psychologist, 30 (3), 187-190.


Searight, H. R, & Pound, P. (1994). The HIV-positive psychiatric patient and the duty to protect: Ethical and legal issues. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 24(3), 259-270.


Simberkoff, M. S. (1989). Ethical aspects in the care of patients with AIDS. Neurologic Clinics, 7, 871-882.


Simon, R. I. (1988). AIDS and the psychiatrist's ethical and legal duty to stay abreast. Special Issue: Ethical treatment of patients with AIDS. Psychiatric Annals, 18, 561-562.


Simone, S. J. (1997). Duty to protect versus confidentiality: How mental health professionals in Ohio implement any existing 'Tarasoff' duty to protect the uninformed sex partners of psychotherapy patients infected with HIV. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (10-B), 6549.


Stewart, T. M, & Reppucci, N. D. (1994). AIDS and murder: Decisions regarding maintenance of confidentiality versus the duty to protect. Law and Human Behavior, 18 (2), 107-120.


WHO (1989). Partner notification for preventing HIV transmission. Journal of Sex Research, 26, 393-399.


Totten, G, Lamb, D. H, & Reeder, G. D. (1990). Tarasoff and confidentiality in AIDS related psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 21(3), 155-160.


Zonana, H, Norko, M, & Stier, D. (1988). The AIDS patient on the psychiatric unit: Ethical and legal issues. Special Issue: Ethical treatment of patients with AIDS. Psychiatric Annals, 18, 587-593.


E. Teaching, Describing and Publishing Clinical Case Materials


Burke, C. A. (1995) Until death do us part: An exploration into confidentiality following the death of a client. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 26(3), 278-280.


Gavey, N, & Braun, V. (1997). Ethics and the publication of clinical case material. Profesional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 399-404.


Polden, J. (1998). Publish and be damned. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 14, 337-347.


Slovenko,R. (1983). The hazards of writing or disclosing information in psychiatry. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 1, 109-127.


F. Confidentiality and research


Carroll, J. D, Knerr, C. R. (Unknown). Confidentiality of social science research sources and data. Unpublished manuscript. Washington, D.C. :American Political Science Association.


Sieber, J. E. (1994). Issues presented by mandatory reporting requirements to researchers of child abuse and neglect. Ethics and Behavior, 4(1), 1-22.


Steinberg, A. M, Pynoos, R. S, Goenjian, A. K, Sossanabadi, H, & Sherr, L. (1999). Are researchers bound by child abuse reporting laws. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23(8), 771-777.


United States Code 42 U.S.C. 6a(II)(A)(241)(d). Authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to issue confidentiality certificates for the protection of privacy of individuals who are research subjects.


Wolfgang, M. E. (1981). Confidentiality in criminological research and other ethical standards. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72, 345-361.


G. Research on expectations and use of confidentiality


Berscheid, E, Baron, R. S, Dermer, M. et al. (1973). Anticipating informed consent: An empirical approach. American Psychologist, 27, 913-925.


McGuire, J. M, Toal, P, & Blau, B. (1985). The adult client's conception of confidentiality in the therapeutic relationship. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 375-384.


Miller, D. J, & M. H. Thelen. (1986). Knowledge and beliefs about confidentiality in psychotherapy. Professional Psychology : Research and Practice, 17, 15-19.


H. Waiver of the psychologist’s own expectation of privilege


Cheatham v. Rogers. 824 S.W. 2d 231 (Tex. Ct. App. 1992) [Therapist waives her own privilege vis-a-vis private psychotherapy if it can be shown that it reveals a bias in sexual abuse assessment]


I:HIPAA Issues


! United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). Standards for privacy of individually identifiable health information[Also known as under the enacting legislation as Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Available at http://www.os.dhhs.gov/ocr/combinedregtext.pdf. [This is a long a complicated document, summarized in the required Appelbaum reading. If you ever bill an insurance company for services, you are covered under this act and must register your compliance with DHHS]


Appelbaum, P. (2002). Privacy in psychiatric treatment: Threats and responses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(11), 1809-1818.


Brendel, R., & Bryan, E. (2004). HIPPA for psychiatrists. Harvard Review of Psychiatry., 12, 177-183.


Fisher, C. B. (2004). Informed Consent and Clinical Research Involving Children and Adolescents Implications of the Revised APA Ethics Code and HIPAA. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 832-839.


McSherry, B. (2004). Third party access to shared electronic mental health records: Ethical issues. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 11(1), 53-62.


Vanderpool, D. (2004). Courts interpret boundaries of HIPAA privacy rule. Psychiatric News, 39(9), 10.


Other confidentiality and privilege issues


Baker, L. C, & Patterson J. E. (1990). The first to know: A systemic analysis of confidentiality and the therapist's family. American Journal of Family Therapy, 18(3), 295-300.


Banja, J. D, & Higgins, P. (1989). Videotaping therapeutic sessions and the right of privacy. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 4, 65-74.


Day v. Miner, No. C3-97-1944. [Minn. Ct. App. 6/2/1998] [Good general case on complex issue of client’s own right to medical and psychiatric records and situations in which client may not have access to such records – here a sexually exploitative therapist]


Foxhall, K. (2000). How would your practice records look to the FBI. Psychology Monitor, January, 50-51. [Non-privilege of records under Medicare fraud investigation authority]


Orme, D., & Doerman, A. (2001). Ethical dilemmas and the U.S. Air Force clinical psychologists: A survey. Professional Psychology, 32(3), 305-311.


Pietrofesa, J. J, Pietrofesa, C. J, & Pietrofesa, J. D. (1990). Federal confidentiality regulations for substance abuse treatment facilities: A case in applied ethics. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 12, 129-137.


United States Code. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. 34 CFR (A)(99); 20 USC 1232, [Privilege in respect of families and children in school]


United States Code. Confidentiality of records [of substance abuse treatment]. 42 U.S.C. 290dd [Privilege in respect of treatment in federally funded substance abuse programs]


Utah v. Cardall, 982 P. 2d 79 (Supreme Court of Utah 1999) [Child's school records could be examined in camera in defense to child rape]


IV: Ethical issues in psychotherapy


Koocher, G. P. (1994). The commerce of professional psychology and the new Ethics Code. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 355-361.


Vasquez, M. J. T. (1994). Implications of the 1992 Ethics Code for the practice of individual psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 321-328.


A. Sexual misconduct and dual role relationships


Abel, G. G, Osborn, C. A, & Warberg, B. (1995). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for professional sexual misconduct. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 106-112.


American Psychiatric Association. (1993). Sex with former patients voted unethical. Psychiatric News, August 6, 1993, Pp. 1, 19.


Appelbaum, P. S, & Jorgenson, L. (1991). Psychotherapist-patient sexual contact after termination of treatment: An analysis and proposal. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1466-1473.


Appelbaum Paul S. (1990). Statutes regulating patient therapist sex. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 41(1), 15-16.


Benedek, E. P, & Wahl, D. (1999). Sexual misconduct, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Medical Association: Ethics and practice. In J. D. Bloom, C. C. Nadelson & et-al. (Eds.), Physician sexual misconduct (pp. 91-111).


Borys, D. S, & Pope, K. S. (1989). Dual relationships between therapists and client: A national study of psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 283-293.


Bouhoutsos, J, Holroyd, J, Lerman, H, Forer, B. R, & Greenberg, M. (1983). Sexual intimacy between psychotherapists and patients. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14, 2, 185-196.


Brown, L. S. (1988). Harmful effects of posttermination sexual and romantic relationships between therapists and their former clients. Psychotherapy, 25, 249-255.


Ebert, B. W. (1997). Dual-relationship prohibitions: A concept whose time never should have come. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 6 (3), 137-156.


Epstein, R. S, & Simon, R. I. (1990). The Exploitation Index: An early warning indicator of boundary violations in psychotherapy. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 54(4), 450-465. [Psychometrics aside, this article presents, from an ego-analytic point of view, an excellent checklist for self-exploration of over-involvement in client issues and boundary problems]


Evans, D. R, & Hearn, M. T. (1997). Sexual and non-sexual dual relationships: Managing the boundaries. In D. R. Evans & et-al. (Eds.), The law, standards of practice, and ethics in the practice of psychology. [Chapter] (pp. 53-83). Toronto, CA: Emond Montgomery Publications.


Feldman-Summers, S, & Jones, G. (1984). Psychological impact of sexual contact between therapists or other health care practitioners and their clients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 1054-1061.


Fisher, C. D. (2004). Ethical Issues in Therapy: Therapist Self-Disclosure of Sexual Feelings. Ethics & Behavior, 14(2), 105-121.


Frick, D. E, McCartney, C. F, & Lazarus, J. S. (1995). Supervision of sexually exploitative psychiatrists: APA district branch experience. Psychiatric Annals, 25(2), 113-117.


Gabbard, G. O. (1994). Reconsidering the American Psychological Association's policy on sex with former patients: Is it justifiable? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 329-335


Gabbard, G. O. (2002, Sep). Post-termination sexual boundary violations. . Psychiatric Clinics of North America., 25(3), 593-603.


Gabbard, G. O. (1995). Transference and countertransference in the psychotherapy of therapists charged with sexual misconduct. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 100-105.


Gabbard, G. O. (1997). Lessons to be learned from the study of sexual boundary violations. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31(3), 321-327.


Gabbard. G.O. (1995). The early history of boundary violations in psychoanalysis. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 4, 1115-1136.


Gartrell, N. et al. (1986). Psychiatrist-patient sexual contact: Results of a national survey: I. Prevalence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1126-1131.


Gerson, A, & Fox, D. D. (1999). Boundary violations: The gray area. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 17(2), 57-61.


Gottlieb, M. C, Hampton, B. R, & Sell, J. M. (1995). Discipline of psychologists held in violation for sexual misconduct. Psychotherapy, 32, 559-567.


Gottlieb, M. C. (1990). Accusation of sexual misconduct: Assisting in the complaint process. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 455-461.


Gunnells, S. L. (1990). Patient therapist sexual relations: Professional services rendered? A case comment on Doe v. Swift. Law & Psychology Review, 14, 87-105.


Gutheil, T. G, & Gabbard, G. O. (1998). Misuses and misunderstandings of boundary theory in clinical and regulatory settings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (3), 409-414.


Gutheil, T. G. (1985). Medicolegal pitfalls in the treatment of borderline patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 9-14.


Gutheil, T. G. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: Theoretical and risk-managment dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.


Hammel, G. A, Olkin, R, & Taube, D. O. (1996). Student-educator sex in clinical and counseling psychology doctoral training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 93-97.


Hankins, G.C, Vera, M. I, Bernard, G.W, & Herkov, M. J. (1994). Patient-therapist sexual involvement: A review of clinical and research data. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 22, 109-126.


Hare-Mustin, R. T, Marecek, J, & Kaplan A. G. (1979). Rights of clients, responsibilities of therapists. American Psychologist, 34, 3-16.


Haspel, K.C, Jorgenson, L.M, Wincze, J.P, & Parsons, J. P. (1997). Legislative intervention regarding therapist sexual misconduct: An overview. Profesional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 63-72.


Herman, J. L, Herman, J, Olarte, S, Feldstein, M, & Localio, R. (1986). Psychiatrist-patient sexual contact: Results of a national survey, I: Prevalence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1126-1131.


Hines, A. H, Ader, D. N, Chang, A. S, & Rundell, J. R. (1998). Dual agency, dual relationships, boundary crossings and associated boundary violations: A survey of military and civilian psychiatrists. Military Medicine, 163(12), 826-833.


Illingworth, P. M. L. (1995). Patient-therapist sex: Criminalization and its discontents. Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy, 11, 389-416.

 

Jackson, H., & Nuttall, R. L. (2001, Apr). A relationship between childhood sexual abuse and professional sexual misconduct. Professional Psychology, 32(2), 200-204.


Jorgenson, L, & Randles, R. M. (1991). Time out: The statute of limitations and fiduciary theory in psychotherapist sexual misconduct cases. Oklahoma Law Review, 44, 181-225.


Jorgenson, L, Bisbing, S. B, & Sutherland, P. K. (1992). Therapist-patient sexual exploitation and insurance liability. Tort and Insurance Law Journal, 27, 595-614.


Jorgenson, L. M. (1995). Rehabilitating sexually exploitation therapists: A risk management perspective. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 118-122.


Kluft, R. P. (1989). Treating the patient who had been sexually exploited by a previous therapist. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 483-500.


Lamb, D. H, & Catanzaro, S. J. (1998). Sexual and nonsexual boundary violations involving psychologists, clients, supervisees, and students: Implications for professional practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (5), 498-503.


Lamb, D. H, Strand, K. K, Woodburn, J. R, & Buchko, K. J. (1994). Sexual and business relationships between therapists and former clients. Psychotherapy, 31(2), 270-278.


LeBoeuf, D. (1988). Psychiatric malpractice: Exploitation of women patients. Harvard Women's Law Journal, 11, 83-116.


Malmquist, C. P., & Notman, M. T. Psychiatrist-patient boundary issues following tratment termination. American Journal of Psychiatry., 158, 1010-1018.


McRay, B. W, McMinn, M. R, & Meek, K. R. (1998). Questioning the "slippery slope": Ethical beliefs and behaviors of private office-based and church-based therapists. Counseling and Values, 42(2), 142-152.


Olarte, S. W. (1991). Characteristics of therapists who become involved in sexual boundary violations. Psychiatric Annals, 21, 657-660.


Pearson, B, & Piazza, N. (1997). Classification of dual relationships in the helping professions. Counselor Education and Supervision, 37(2),


Pope, K. S, Keith-Spiegel, P, & Tabachnick, B. G. (1986). Sexual attraction to clients: The human therapist and the (sometimes) inhuman training system. American Psychologist, 41, 147-158.


Pope, K. S, Tabachnick, B. G, & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1987). Ethics of practice: The beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as therapists. American Psychologist, 42, 993-1006.


Pope, K. S, & Tabachnick, B. G. (1993). Therapists' anger, hate, fear, and sexual feelings: National survey of therapist responses, client characteristics, critical events, formal complaints, and training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 142-152.


Pope, K. S. (1990). "Therapist patient sex as sex abuse: Six scientific, professional, and practical dilemmas in addressing victimization: Comment": Response. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 21(6), 421-423.


Pope, K. S. (1990). Ethical and malpractice issues in hospital practice. American Psychologist, 45(9), 1066-1070.


Pope, K. S. (1990). Identifying and implementing ethical standards for primary prevention. Prevention in Human Services, 8(2), 43-64.


Pope, K. S. (1991). Dual relationships in psychotherapy. Ethics and Behavior, 1(1), 21-34.


Pope, K. S. (2000). Therapists' sexual feelings and behaviors: Research, trends, and quandaries. In L. T. Szuchman, F. Muscarella & et-al. (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on human sexuality. (pp. 603-658). New York, NY,: John Wiley & Sons.


Pope, K. S. (1995). Sexual involvement with therapists: Patient assessment, subsequent therapy, forensics. Washington, DC.


Pope, K. S. (1990). Therapist patient sex as sex abuse: Six scientific, professional, and practical dilemmas in addressing victimization and rehabilitation. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 21(4), 227-239.


Pope, K. S. (1995). Assessing patients and therapists who have been involved in therapist-patient sexual intimacies: Evaluating harm, recovery and rehabilitation. In J. N. Butcher (Ed.), Clinical personality assessment (pp. 475-494). Oxford University Press: New York.


Pope, K. S. (1993). Licensing disciplinary actions for psychologists who have been sexually involved with a client: Some information about offenders. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 374-377.


Pruitt, J.A, & Kappius, R. E. (1992). Routine inquiry into sexual victimization: A survey of therapists' practices. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 474-479.


Reid, P. T. (1986). Unethical intimacy: Don't blame students. Special Issue: Psychological science and education. American Psychologist, 41, 1175.


Richards, K. A., & Noblin, C. D. (1999). Sanctions for ethics violations: Does licensure or socioeconomic status matter. Ethics and Behavior., 9(2), 119-126.


Rinella, V.J, & Gerstein, A. I. (1994). The development of dual relationships: Power and professional responsibility. Internatinal Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 17, 225-237.


Ryder, R, & Hepworth, J. (1990). AAMFT ethical code: ""Dual relationships.''. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 16(2), 127-132.


Schoener, G. R. (1995). Assessement of professionals who have engaged in boundary violations. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 95-99.


Sell, J. M, Gottlieb, M. C, & Schoenfeld, L. (1986). Ethical considerations of social/romantic relationships with present and former clients. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 17, 504-508.


Sharkin, B. S. (1995). Strains on confidentiality in college-student psychotherapy: Entangled therapeutic relationships. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 184-189.


Shopland, S.N, & VandeCreek, L. (1991). Sex with ex-clients: Theoretical rationales for prohibition. Ethics and Behavior, 1(1), 35-44.


Simon, R. I. (1992). Treatment boundary violations: Clinical, ethical and legal considerations. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 269-288.


Simon, R. I. (1985). Sexual misconduct of therapists: A cause for civil and criminal action. Trial, 21, 46-51.


Simon, R. I. (1987). The psychiatrist as a fiduciary: Avoiding the double agent role. Psychiatric Annals, 17, 622-626.


Simon, R. I. (1994). Transference in therapist-patient sex: The illusion of patient improvement and consent. Psychiatric Annals, 24(10), 509-515.


Simon, R. I. (1995). The natural history of therapist sexual misconduct: Identification and prevention. Psychiatric Annals, 25(2), 90-94.


Smith, D, & Fitzpatrick, M. (1995). Patient-therapist boundary issues: An integrative review of theory and research. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 499-506.


State of Colorado. (1992). Sexual assault on a client by a psychotherapist. Colorado Revised Statutues §18-3-405.5


State of Florida. (1991). Sexual misconduct by a psychotherapist. Florida Statutes §491.0112


State of Georgia. (1992). Sexual assault by practitioner of psychotherapy against a patient. Official Code of Georgia Annotated §16-6-5.1


State of Maine. (1991). Gross sexual assault. Maine Revised Statutues, Annotated §17(A)-2-11-253.


Strasburger, L. H, Jorgenson, L, & Randles, R. (1991). The criminalization of psychotherapist-patient sex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 859-863.


Strasburger, L. H, Jorgenson, L, & Randles, R. (1990). Mandatory reporting of sexually exploitative psychotherapists. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 18, 379-384.


Strasburger, L. H, Jorgenson, L, & Sutherland, P. (1992). The prevention of psychotherapist sexual misconduct: Avoiding the slippery slope. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 46, 544-555.


Vasquez, M. J. (1991). Sexual intimacies with clients after termination: Should a prohibition be explicit? Ethics and Behavior, 1(1), 45-61.


Williams, M. H. (1992). Exploitation and inference: Mapping the damage from therapist-patient sexual involvement. American Psychologist, 47, 412-421.


Williams, M. H. (1990). "Therapist patient sex as sex abuse: Six scientific, professional, and practical dilemmas in addressing victimization and rehabilitation": Comment. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 21(6), 420-421.


Wood, B. J. et al. (1985). Impaired practitioners: Psychologists' opinions about prevalence, and proposals for intervention. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 843-850.


Zur, O. (2002). The truth about the codes of ethics: Dispelling the rumors that dual relationships are unethical. In A. A. Lazarus & O. Zur (Eds.), Dual relationships and psychotherapy (pp. 55-63).


A-1. Non-sexual multiple relationship issues


Anderson, S. K, & Kitchener, K. S. (1996). Nonromatic, nonsexual posttherapy relationships between psychologists and former clients: An exploratory study. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 59-66.


Anderson, S. K, & Kitchener, K. S. (1998). Nonsexual posttherapy relationships: A conceptual framework to assess ethical risks. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (1), 91-99.


Gutheil, T. G., & Simon, R. I. (2002, Sep). Non-sexual boundary crossings and boundary violations: The ethical dimension. Psychiatric Clinics of North America., 25(3), 585-592.


Knapp, S., & Slattery, J. M. (2004). Professional Boundaries in Nontraditional Settings. Professional Psychology, 35(5), 553-558.


Lamb, J., & Gottlieb, M. (2004). Managing risk when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(3), 255-260.


Lamb, D., Catanzaro, S., & Moorman, A. (2004). A preliminary look at how psychologists identify, evaluate, and proceed when faced with possible multiple relationship dilemmas. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(3), 248-254.


Lamb, D. H, & Catanzaro, S. J. (1998). Sexual and nonsexual boundary violations involving psychologists, clients, supervisees, and students: Implications for professional practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (5), 498-503.


Lamb, D. H, Strand, K. K, Woodburn, J. R, & Buchko, K. J. (1994). Sexual and business relationships between therapists and former clients. Psychotherapy, 31(2), 270-278.


Miller, R. D. (1990). Ethical issues involved in the dual role of treater and evaluator. In In R. Rosner & R. Weinstock (Eds.), Ethical Practice in Psychiatry and the Law (pp. 129-150). New York: Plenum.


Pipes, R. B., Holstein, J., & Aguirre, M. (2005). Examing the personal-professional distinction: Ethics codes and the difficulty of drawing a boundary. American Psychologist, 60(4), 325-334.


Sonne, J. L. (1994). Multiple relationships: Does the new Ethics Code answer the right questions? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 336-343.


Younggren, J., & Gottlieb, M. (2004). Managing risk when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(3), 255-260.


B. Therapeutic modalities


Austin, K.M, Moline, M. E, & Williams, G. T. (1990). Confronting malpractice: Legal and ethical dilemmas in psychotherapy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. [Excellent and comprehensive analysis of the whole psychotherapy process, including ethical codes from many professions]


Tjeltveit, A. C. (1999). Ethics and values in psychotherapy. New York, NY, US: Routledge.


B-1 High risk therapy and other techniques (e.g, recovered memories; child abuse)


American Psychological Association (1996). Final Report of the Working Group on Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse. Washington, D.C.: Author.


Cannell, J., Hudson, J. I., & Pope, H. G. J. (2001). Standards for informed consent in recovered memory therapy. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law., 29(2), 138-147. US: American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1995). Twenty-four questions (and answers) about professional practice in the area of child abuse. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 377-385.


Crook, L. S., & Dean, M. C. (1999a). Logical fallacies and ethical breaches. Ethics and Behavior., 9(1), 61-68. [Critique of Loftus’ “Lost in the mall” study]


Crook, L. S., & Dean, M. C. (1999b). "Lost in a shopping mall"--A breach of professional ethics. [Journal Article]. Ethics and Behavior., 9(1), 39-50.


Enns, C. Z, Campbell, J, Courtois, C, & et al. (1998). Working with clients who may have experienced childhood abuse: Recommendations for assessment and practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (3), 245-256.


Freyd, J. J., & Quina, K. (2000). Feminist ethics in the practice of science: The contested memory controversy as an example. In M. M. Brabeck & et-al. (Eds.), Practicing feminist ethics in psychology. Psychology of women book series. (pp. 101-123). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.


Grunberg, F, & Ney, T. (1997). Professional guidelines on clinical practice for recovered memory: A comparative analysis. In J. D. Read, D. S. Lindsay & et-al. (Eds.), Recollections of trauma: Scientific evidence and clinical practice (J. D. Read, D. S. Lindsay & et-al, Eds.) (291). NATO ASI Series: Series A: Life Sciences (541-555). New York, NY: Plenum Press.


Knapp, S., & VandeCreek, L. (2001). Psychotherapists' legal responsibility to third parties: Does it extend to alleged perpetrators of childhood abuse? Professional Psychologist, 32(5), 479-483.


Knapp, S., & VandeCreek, L. (1999). Moral principles underlying the treatment of adults with memories of childhood abuse. Ethics and Behavior., 9(4), 319-330.


Knapp, S, & VandeCreek, L. (1996). Risk management for psychologists: Treating patients who recover lost memories of childhood abuse. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 452-459.

 

Loftus, E. F. (1999). Lost in the mall: Misrepresentations and misunderstandings. Ethics and Behavior., 9(1), 51-60. [Loftus’ position on her “Lost in the mall” study]


Miller, M. (1999). Ethical considerations in the teaching of trauma and dissociation: Student exposure and unexpected memory. In Williams, Linda M.; Banyard, Victoria L. (Eds). Trauma & memory. (pp. 67-75). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications.


Simon, R. I, & Gutheil, T. G. (1997). Ethical and clinical risk management principles in recovered memory cases: Maintaining therapist neutrality. In P. S. Appelbaum, L. A. Uyehara & et-al. (Eds.), Trauma and memory: Clinical and legal controversies (P. S. Appelbaum, L. A. Uyehara & et-al, Eds.) (477-495). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Whaley v. Washington, 956 P. 2d 110 [Wash. Ct. App. 1998] [Liability for use of an experimental technique, facilitated communication, to accuse mother of sexual abuse of disabled child]


B-2 Group and marital therapies


Association of Specialists in Group Work. (1990). Ethical Guidelines for Group Counselors (1989 Revision). Journal of Specialists in Group Work, 15(2), 119-126.


Aubrey, M, & Dougher, M. J. (1990). Ethical issues in outpatient group therapy with sex offenders. Special Issue: Ethical and legal issues in group work. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 15(2), 75-82.


Lakin, M. (1994). Morality in group and family therapies: Multiperson therapies and the 1992 Ethics Code. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 344-348.


Lakin, M. (1986). Ethical challenges of group and dyadic psychotherapies: A comparative approach. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 454-461.


Lawson, R. J. (1989). Family mediation: Ethical issues and practice standards. Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage & Family, 10, 180-194.


Gregory, J. C, & McConnell, S. C. (1986). Ethical issues with psychotherapy in group contexts. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 4, 51-62.


Grosser, G. H, & Paul, N. L. (1964). Ethical issues in family group therapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 34, 875-884.


Margolin, G. (1982). Ethical and legal considerations in marital and family therapy. American Psychologist, 37, 788-801.


Mullan, H. (1987). The ethical foundations of group psychotherapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 37, 403-416.


Paradise, L., & Kirby, P. (1990). Some perspective on the legal liability of group counseling in private practice. Journal of Specialists in Group Work, 15(2), 114-118.


Patten, C, Barnett, T. & Houlihan, D. (1991). Ethics in marital and family ltherapy: A review of the literature. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22, 171-175.


Pepper, R. S. (2004). Confidentiality and dual relationships in group psychotherapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 54(1), 103-114.


Taylor, R., & Garzia, G. (1991). Concurrent individual and group therapy:The ethical issues. Journal of Group Psychotherapy Psychodrama and Sociometry, 44(2), 51-60.


B-3 Moral, religious and diversity issues


Bergin, A. E. (1991). Values and religious issues in psychotherapy and mental health. American Psychologist, 46, 394-403.


Brown, L. S. (1988). Beyond thou shalt not: Thinking about ethics in the lesbian therapy community. Special Issue: Lesbianism: Affirming nontraditional roles. Women & Therapy, 8, 13-25.


Forstein, M. (2001). Overview of ethical and research issues in sexual orientation therapy. . Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy., 5(3-4), 167-179.


Hall, G. C. N. (2001, Jun). Psychotherapy research with ethnic minorities: Empirical, ethical, and conceptual issues. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology., 69(3), 502-510.


Meyer, M. S. (1988). Ethical principles of psychologists and religious diversity. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 19, 486-488.


Rayburn, C. A. (1985). Some ethical considerations in psychotherapy with religious women. Psychotherapy, 22, 803-812.


Schroeder, M., & Shidlo, A. (2001). Ethical issues in sexual orientation conversion therapies: An empirical study of consumers. . Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy., 5(3-4), 131-166.


Sobocinski, M. R. (1990). Ethical principles in the counseling of gay and lesbian adolescents: Issues of autonomy, competence, and confidentiality. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 240-247.


Tjeltveit, A. C. (1986). The ethics of value conversion in psychotherapy: Appropriate and inappropriate therapist influence on client values. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 515-537.


Tjeltveit, A. C. (1999). Ethics and values in psychotherapy. New York, NY, US: Routledge.


B-4 Other modalities


Buelow, G. D, & Chafetz, M. D. (1996). Proposed ethical practice guidelines for clinical pharmacology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 53-58.


Littrell, J, & Ashford, J. B. (1995). Is it proper for psychologists to discuss medications with clients. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 238-244.


Packman, W. L, Cabot, M. G, & Bongar, B. (1994). Malpractice arising from negligent psychotherapy: Ethical, legal, and clinical implications of Osheroff v. Chestnut Lodge. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 175-197. [Right to effective treatment, does this exclude psychoanalysis?]


Roberts, L. W., & Geppert, C. (2004). Ethical Use of Long-Acting Medications in the Treatment of Severe and Persistent Mental Illnesses. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45(3), 121-127.


C. Record keeping


Barnett, J. E. (1999). Recordkeeping: Clinical, ethical, and risk management issues. In VandeCreek, Leon; Jackson, Thomas L. (Eds) Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 17. (pp. 237-254). Sarasota, FL, USA: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.


Block, M. R, Schaffner, K. F, & Coulehan, J. L. (1985). Ethical problems of recording physician-patient interactions in family practice settings. Journal of Family Practice, 21, 467-472.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1993). Record keeping guidelines. American Psychologist, 48, 984-986.


Gutheil, T. G., & Hilliard, J. T. (2001). "Don't write me down": Legal, clinical, and risk-management aspects of patients' requests that therapists not keep notes or records. . American Journal of Psychotherapy., 55(2), 157-165.


Moline, M. E, Williams, G. T, & Austin, K. M. (1998). Documenting psychotherapy: Essentials for mental health practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, Inc.


D. Supervision


Bartell, P.A. & Rubin, L. J. (1990). Dangerous liaisons: Sexual intimacies in supervision. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 442-450.


Biaggio M, Paget, T. L, & Chenoweth, M. (1997). A model for the ethical management of faculty-student relationships. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28 (2), 184-189.


Bremer, D. A. (1998). Ethics in clinical student supervision. In Anderson, Robert M. Jr.; Needels, Terri L.; et-al. (1998). Avoiding ethical misconduct in psychology specialty areas. (pp. 298-311).


Burns, C. I, & Holloway, E. L. (1989). Therapy in supervision: An unresolved issue. Clinical Supervisor, 7, 47-60.


!Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2004). Ethical and Legal Perspectives and Risk Management. In C. A. S. Falender, Edward P. (Ed.), Clinical supervision: A competency-based approach (p. 151-194). Washington, D.C.:American Psychological Association.


Fitzgerald, P. (1999). "Sex, lies and training programs: The ethics of consensual sexual relationships between psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists": Comment. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33(1), 119-120.


Glaser, R. D, & J. S. Thorpe. (1986). Unethical intimacy : A survey of sexual contact and advances between psychology educators and female graduate students. American Psychologist, 41, 43-51.


Hamilton, J. C, & Spruill, J. (1999). Identifying and reducing risk factors related to trainee-client sexual misconduct. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(3), 318-327.


Harrar, W. R, VandeCreek, L, & Knapp, S. (1990). Ethical and legal aspects of clinical supervision. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 21, 37-41.


Hassenfeld, I, & Lavigne, G. (1987). Issues raised by troubled residents' need for psychotherapy. Journal of Medical Education, 62, 608-610.


Housman, L. M, & Stake, J. E. (1999). The current state of sexual ethics training in clinical psychology: Issues of quantity, quality, and effectiveness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(3), 302-311.


Kay, J, & Roman, B. (1999). Prevention of sexual misconduct at the medical school, residency, and practitioner levels. In J. D. Bloom, C. C. Nadelson & et-al. (Eds.), Physician sexual misconduct. (pp. pp. 153-177). Washington, DC, USA.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.


Ladany, N, Lehrman-Waterman, D, Molinaro, M, & Wolgast, B. (1999). Psychotherapy supervisor ethical practices: Adherence to guidelines, the supervisory working alliance, and supervisee satisfaction. Counseling Psychologist. Counseling Psychologist, 27(3), 443-475.


Minnes, P. M. (1987). Ethical issues in supervision. Canadian Psychology, 28, 285-290.


O'-Connor, B. P. (2000). Reasons for less than ideal psychotherapy supervision. Clinical Supervisor., 19(2), 173-183. US: Haworth Press Inc.


Reid, W. H. (2004). Organization Liability: Beyond Respondeat Superior. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 10(4), 258-262.


Rudisill, J. R, Rodenhauser, P, & Painter, A. F. (1998). A psychotherapy supervision checklist. In L. VandeCreek, S. Knapp & et-al. (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A sourcebook (L. VandeCreek, S. Knapp & et-al, Eds.) (16) (283-289). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.


Russell, C. S, & Peterson, C. M. (1998). The management of personal and professional boundaries in marriage and family therapy training programs. Contemporary Family Therapy, 20(4), 457-470.


Ryan, C. J. (1998). Sex, lies and training programs: The ethics of consensual sexual relationships between psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32(3), 387-391.


Slimp, P, O'Connor, A, & Burian, B. K. (1994). Multiple role relationships during internship: Consequences and recommendations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 39-45.


Sutter, E., McPherson, R. H., & Geeseman, R. (2002, Oct). Contracting for supervision. Professional Psychology, 33(5), 495-498.


Tanenbaum, R. L, & Berman, M. A. (1990). Ethical and legal issues in psychotherapy supervision. 96th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association: Psychotherapy supervision: Professional and ethical issues (1988, Atlanta, Georgia). Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 8(1), 65-77.


Vasquez, M. J. T. (1992). Psychologist as clinical supervisor: Promoting ethical practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 196-202.


E. Other malpractice issues


Appelbaum, P. S, Schaffner, K, & Meisel A. (1985). Responsibility and compensation for tardive dyskinesia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 806-810.


Baerger, D. R. (2001, Aug). Risk management with the suicidal patient: Lessons from case law. Professional Psychology, 32(4), 359-366.


Berman, A. L, & R. Cohen-Sandler. (1983). Suicide and malpractice: expert testimony and the standard of care. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14, 6-19.


Bongar, B. (1991). The suicidal patient. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.


Brody, E. B. (1988). Patients' rights: Science, ethics and the law in international perspective. Community Mental Health in New Zealand, 4, 21-27.


Brown, L., Bonger, B., & Cleary, K. (2004). A profile of psychologists' views of critical risk factors for completed suicide in older adults. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(1), 90-96.


Bursztajn, H, Gutheil, T. G, Hamm, R. M, & Brodsky A. (1983). Subjective data and suicide assessment in the light of recent legal developments: Part II: Clinical uses of legal standards in the interpretation of subjective data. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 6, 3331-350.


Fine, M. A, & Sansone, R. A. (1990). Dilemmas in the management of suicidal behavior in individuals with borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 44, 160-171.


Fitzgerald, W. L. J. (1999). Legal and ethical considerations in the treatment of psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60(Suppl 19), 59-65.


Gotbetter, S. (1978). Tardive dyskinesia: A latent legal concern for psychiatrists. Legal Aspects of Medication Practice, September, 39-43.


Gualterieri, C. T, & Sprague, R.L. (1984). Preventing tardive dyskinesia and preventing tardive dyskinesia legislation. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 20, 346-348.


Gutheil, T. G, Bursztajn, H, Hamm, R. M, & Brodsky A. (1983). Subjective data and suicide assessment in the light of recent legal developments: Part I: Malpractice prevention and the use of subjective data. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 6, 317-329.


Hobart v. Shin, 1998 WL 884567 (Ill. Sup. Ct. Dec, 17, 1998). (Patient’s suicidality and depression doesn’t automatically negate contributory negligence)


Holub, E. A, & Lee, S. S. (1990). Therapist's use of nonerotic physical contact: Ethical concerns. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 21, 115-117.


Jobes, D. A, & Berman, A. L. (1993). Suicide and malpractice liability: Assessing and revising policies, procedures, and practice in outpatient settings. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 91-99.


Joiner, T., Walker, R., Rudd, M., & Jobes, D. (1999). Scientizing and routinizing the assessment of suicidality in outpatient practice. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 30(5), 447-453.


Kleepies, P., Deleppo, J., Gallagher, P., & Niles, B. (1999). Managing suicidal emergencies: Recommendations for the practitioner. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 30(5), 454-463.


Knapp, S, & VandeCreek, L. (1993). Legal and ethical issues in billing patients and collecting fees. Psychotherapy, 30, 25-31.


Packman, W., Pennuto, T., Bongar, B., & Orthwein, J. (2004). Legal issues of professional negligence in suicide cases. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 22, 697-713.


Perr, I. N. (1985). Suicide litigation and risk management: A review of 32 cases. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 13, 209-219.


Risk management Foundation of the Harvard Medical Institutions. (1999). Guidelines for identification, assessment, and treatment planning for suicidality. Available at http://www/rmf.org/rmf/b8062.html


Rudd, M., & Joiner, T. (1998). The assessment, management, and treatment of suicidality:Toward clinically informed and balanced standards of care. Clinical Psychology:Science and Practice, 5(2), 135+150.


Rudd, M., Joiner, T., Jobes, D., & King, C. (1999). The outpatient treatment of suicidality:An integration of science and recognition of its limitations. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 30(5), 437-446.


Sommers-Flanagan, J, & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (1995). Intake interviewing with suicidal patients: A systematic approach. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26 (1), 41-47.


Wettstein, R. M, & P. S. Appelbaum. (1984). Legal liability for tardive dyskinesia. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 35, 992-994.


Wingate, L. R., Joiner, T. E. J., Walker, R. L., Rudd, M. D., & Jobes, D. A. (2004). Empirically informed approaches to topics in suicide risk assessment. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 22(5), 651-665.


Woody, R. H. (1998). Bartering for psychological services. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (2), 174-178.


F. Informed consent


! Department of Health and Human Services. 45 CFR Parts 160 and 164 [HIPAA] HIPAA Privacy Outline. http://www.sma.org/sdi/articles/hipaa_privacy_outline.pdf


Appelbaum, P. (2004). Psychiatric advance directives and the treatment of committed patients. Psychiatric Services, 55(7), 751-763.


Beeman, D. G. & Scott, N. A. (1991). Therapist's attitudes toward psychotherapy informed consent with adolescents. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22, 230-234.


Braaten, E. B, & Handelsman, M. M. (1997). Client preferences for informed consent information. Ethics and Behavior, 7 (4), 311-328.


Brown, R., Butow, P., Butt, D., Moore, A., Tattersall, M., & Brown, R. (2004). Developing ethical strategies to assist oncologists in seeking informed consent to cancer clinical trials. Social Science and Medicine, 58(2), 379-390.


Bray, J. H, Shepherd, J. N, & Hays, J. R. (1985). Legal and ethical issues in informed consent to psychotherapy. American Journal of Family Therapy, 13, 50-60.


Dunn, L. B., & Jeste, D. V. (2001, Jun). Enhancing informed consent for research and treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology., 24(6), 595-607.


Haas, L. J. (1991). Hide-and-seek or show-and-tell? Emerging issues of informed consent. Ethics and Behavior, 1(3), 175-189.


Handelsman, M. M. (1990). Do written consent forms influence clients' first impressions of therapists? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 451-454.


Haut, M. W, & T. Muehleman. (1986). Informed consent: the effects of clarity and specificity on disclosure in a clinical interview. Psychotherapy, 23, 93-101.


Jensen, J.A, McNemara, J. R. & Gustafson, K. E. (1991). Parents' and clinicians' attitudes toward the risks and benefits of child psychotherapy: A study of informed-consent content. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22, 161-170.


Malcolm, J. G. (1986). Treatment choices and informed consent in psychiatry: Implications of the Osheroff case for the profession. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 14, 9-107.


McCrady, B., & Bux, D. (1999). Ethical issues in informed consent with substance abusers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 186-193.


Muehleman, T, Pickens, B. K, & Robinson F. (1985). Informing clients about the limits to confidentiality. Risks, and their rights: is self-disclosure inhibited? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 385-397.


Packman, W. L, Cabot, M. G, & Bongar, B. (1994). Malpractice arising from negligent psychotherapy: Ethical, legal, and clinical implications of Osheroff v. Chestnut Lodge . Ethics and Behavior, 4(3), 175-197.

Petrila, J. (2003). The emerging debate over the shape of informed consent: Can the doctrine bear the weight. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 21(1), 121-133.


Pomerantz, A., & Handelsman, M. (2004). Informed consent revisited: An updated written question format. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(2), 201-205.


Taube, D. O, & Elwork, A. (1990). Researching the effects of confidentiality law on patients' self-disclosure. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 72-75.


G. Managed care


Acuff, C, Bennett, B. E, Bricklin, P. M, Canter, M. B, Knapp, S. J, Moldawsky, S, & Phelps, R. (1999). Considerations for ethical practice in managed care. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 30(6), 563-575.


Belar, C. D. (2000, Mar). Ethical issues in managed care: Perspectives in evolution. Counseling Psychologist., 28(2), 237-241.


Berkman, N., Wynia, M., & Churchill, L. (2004). Gaps, conflicts, and consensus in the ethics statements of professional associations, medical groups, and health plans. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30(4), 395-401.


Bilynsky, N. S, & Vernaglia, E. R. (1998). The ethical practice of psychology in a managed-care framework. Psychotherapy, 35 (1), 54-68.


Blanck, R.R. & DeLeon, P. H. (1996). Managed care: Strongly conflicting views. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 323-324.


Braun, C., & Sikula, A. S. (2005). Managed Mental Health Care Systems: Current Responses to a Continuous Ethical Dilemma. Ethics & Behavior, 15(1), 98-101.


Cooper, C. C., & Gottlieb, M. C. (2000). Ethical issues with managed care: Challenges facing counseling psychology. Counseling Psychologist., 28(2), 179-236.


Elder, W. G. (1996). Who has the “relationship” in managed care. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 405-406.


Kramer, T.G, & Gesten, E. L. (1998). Confidentiality limits of managed care and clients; willingness to self-disclose. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, 553-558.


Kubiszyn, T., Meyer, G., & Finn, S. e. a. (2000). Empirical support for psychological assessment in clinical health care settings. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 31(2), 119-130. [very controversial article by PAWG stressing validity claims to justify assessment in managed care that many find excessive and political]


Lazarus, J. A., & Sharfstein, S. S. (2002, Sep). Ethics in managed care. . Psychiatric Clinics of North America., 25(3), 561-574.


Melnick, S. D., & Ginsberg, P. E. (1999, Mar). Tailoring the chart. Psychiatric Services., 50(3), 417-418.


Miller, I. J. (1996). Managed care is harmful to outpatient mental health services: A call for accountability. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 349-363.


Moffic, H. (2004). Managed behavioral healthcare poses multiple ethical challenges for clinicians. Psychiatric Annals, 34(2), 98-104.


Miller, I.J. (1997). Ethical and liability issues concerning invisible rationing. Profesional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 583-587.


Murphy, M. J, DeBernardo, C. R, & Shoemaker, W. E. (1998). Impact of managed care on independent practice and professional ethics: A survey of independent practitioners. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (1), 43-51.


Pollack, E. (1998). Which master's voice? Ethical dilemmas for managed care reviewers. In R. F. Small, L. R. Barnhill & et-al. (Eds.), Practicing in the new mental health marketplace: Ethical, legal and moral issues (R. F. Small, L. R. Barnhill & et-al, Eds.) (139-151). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Pomerantz, A. M. (2000). What if prospective clients knew how managed care impacts psychologists' practice and ethics? An exploratory study. Ethics and Behavior., 10(2), 159-171.


Sabin, J. E., Daniels, N., & Teagarden, J. (2004). The perfect storm. Psychiatric Annals, 34(2), 125-132. US: SLACK URLP: http://www.slackinc.com.


Sabin, J. E. (1999, May-Jun). How to teach residents about ethical managed care--even if the mention of "managed care" makes your blood boil. Harvard Review of Psychiatry., 7(1), 64-67.


Sank, L. I. (1997). Taking on managed care: One reviewer at a time. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28 (6), 548-554.

 

Shuman, D. W. (1997). The standard of care in medical malpractice claims, clinical practice guidelines, and managed care: Towards a therapeutic harmony. California Western Law Review, 34, 99-113.


Wynia, M. K., Cummins, D. S., VanGeest, J. B., & Wilson, I. B. (2000). Physician manipulation of reimbursement rules for patients: Between a rock and a hard place. Jama, 283(14), 1858-1865.


Younggren, J. N. (2000, Mar). Is managed care really just another, unethical Model T [Journal Article]. Counseling Psychologist., 28(2), 253-262.


G-1 ERISA Issues


Practice Directorate, American Psychological Association. (2000) Give Injured Patients Legal Recourse By Closing the ERISA Loophole. Available at http://www.apa.org/practice/erisaloophole.html (accessed 8/26/2000)


Pegram v. Herdrich. No. 98-1949. [U.S. 6/12/2000]. Comment Recent Supreme Court case, tough reading, on why Congress didn’t intend to dis-allow financial conflicts of interest in health benefit plans known as ERISA. Congress will be asked to pass the Norwood-Dingel Bill., H.R. 2990, to close this loophole. APA is actively involved in this issue. You can track this Patient’s Bill of Rights, or Managed Care Improvement Act through http://thomas.loc.gov


H. Right to die and assisted suicide in therapy and assessment


Abeles, N, & Barlev, A. (1999). End of life decisions and assisted suicide. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 30(3), 229-234.


McClain, V. R, Tindell, S, & Hall, S. H. (1999). Ethical dilemmas in right to die issues. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 17(4), 77-88.


Szasz, T. (1986). The case against suicide prevention. American Psychologist, 41, 806-812.


Werth, J. L. J. (1999). When is a mental health professional competent to assess a person's decision to hasten death [Ethics;assisted suicide;professional standards]. Ethics and Behavior, 9(2), 141-157.


I. Other ethical issues in psychotherapy


Chodoff, P. (1985). Ethical conflicts in psychiatry: The Soviet Union vs. the U.S. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 36, 925-928.


Conte, H. R, Plutchik, R, Picard, S, & Karasu, T. B. (1989). Ethics in the practice of psychotherapy: A survey. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 43, 32-42.


Geller, J. L. (1986). Rights, wrongs, and the dilemma of coerced community treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1259-1264.


Halleck, S. L. (1981). Covert values in the treatment of psychosis. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 35, 173-186.


Hillerbrand, E. T, & Claiborn, C. D. (1988). Ethical knowledge exhibited by clients and nonclients. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 19, 527-531.


Imber, S. D, Glanz, L. M, Elkin, I, Sotsky, S. M, Boyer, J. L, & Leber, W. R. (1986). Ethical issues in psychotherapy research: Problems in a collaborative clinical trials study. American Psychologist, 41, 137-146.


Kahn, M. W, & Duckworth, K. S. (1998). Needing treatment, wanting nothing: Ethical dilemmas in the treatment of the homeless mentally ill. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 5 (5), 274-280.


Laliotis, D. A, & Grayson, J. H. (1985). Psychologist heal thyself. American Psychologist, 40, 1, 84-96.


McGrath, J. (1989). Psychiatry, molecular genetics and ethics: The new discoveries and the new issues. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 23, 67-72.


Paradise, L. V. (1990). Consumer rights in counseling: Duty to disclose. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 12, 225-227.


Phillips, J. B. (1983). Some ethical concerns regarding the individual psychotherapy of the married client. Canadian Psychology, 24, 8-13.


Reiser, S. J. (1980). Refusing treatment for mental illness: Historical and ethical dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 329-331.


Sadler, J. Z. (1986). The emergency room psychiatrist as multiple agent: A family systems analysis. Family Systems Medicine, 4, 367-375.


Shore, M. F, & S. E. Golann. (1969). Problems of ethics in community mental health: a survey of community psychologists. Community Mental Health Journal, 5, 452-460.


Shuman, D., Greenberg, S., Heilbrun, K., & Foote, W. (1998). An immodest proposal:Should treating mental health professionals be barred from testifying about their patients? Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 509-523.


Szasz, T. S. (1966). Alcoholism : A socio-ethical perspective. Western Medicine, 7, 15-21.


Tancredi, L. R. (1985 ). Some ethical dilemmas in emergency psychiatry. New Directions for Mental Health Services, 28, 67-77.


Tancredi, L. R. (1980). The right to refuse psychiatric treatment: Some legal and ethical considerations. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 5, 514-522.


Toulmin, S. (1986). Divided loyalties and ambiguous relationships. Social Science & Medicine, 23, 783-787.


Widiger, T. A, & L. G. Rorer. (1984). The responsible psychotherapist. American Psychologist, 39, 503-515.


J. Psychologists as prescribers of psychotropic medication treatment


Antonuccio, D., Danton, W., & McClanahan, T. (2003). Psychology in the prescription era: Building a firewall between marketing and science. American Psychologist, 58(12), 1028-1043.


Reist, D., & VandeCreek, L. (2004). The Pharmaceutical Industry's Use of Gifts and Educational Events to Influence Prescription Practices: Ethical Dilemmas and Implications for Psychologists. Professional Psychology, 35(4), 329-335.




V: Issues in assessment


!American Psychological Association. (1999). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, D.C.: Author. (Copy available from the Clinical Office;if you are at all interesting in specializing in assessment, you need to order this from APA and know it well; for others, this is a suggested reading or browsing)).


Ackerman, R. J, & Banks, M. E. (1990). Computers and ethical treatment for brain-injured patients. Special Issue: Computing: Social and policy issues. Social Science Computer Review, 8, 83-95.


Adams, K. M. (2000, Sep). Practical and ethical issues pertaining to test revisions. Psychological Assessment., 12(3), 281-286. US: American Psychological Assn.


American Psychological Association. (1996). Statement on the disclosure of test data. American Psychologist, 51, 644-648.


Anonymous (Editorial). (1999). Test security: Protecting the integrity of tests. American Psychologist, 54(12), 1078.


Anonymous. (1984). Computerized psychological testing: State-of-the-Art. Unpublished manuscript.


Axelrod, B., Heilbronner, R., Barth, J., Larrabee, G., Faust, D., Pliskin, N., Fisher, J., & Silver, C. (2000, Jul). Test security: Official position statement of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology., 15(5), 383-386. US: Pergamon Press c/o Elsevier Science Inc.


Bartram, D, & R. Bayliss. (1984). Automated testing: Past, present and future. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 57, 221-237.


Bersoff, D. M, & Bersoff, D. N. (2000). Ethical issues in the collection of self-report data. In A. A. Stone, J. S. Turkkan & et-al. (Eds.), The science of self-report: Implications for research and practice. [Chapter] (pp. pp. 9-24). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Publishers.


Bersoff, D. N, & Hofer, P. J. (1991). Legal issues in computerized psychological testing. In S. Wise & T. Gutkin (Eds.), The computer and the decision-making process. (Pp225-243). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.


Bersoff, D. N. (1981). Testing and the law. American Psychologist, 36, 1047-1056.


Bersoff, D. N. (1983). Regarding psychologists testily: The legal regulation of psychological assessment. In C. J. Scheirer & B. L. Hammonde, Psychology and the Law (Master Lecture Series, Vol. 2) American Psychological Association pp. 41-88.


Binder, L. M, & Thompson, L. L. (1994). The ethics code and neuropsychological assessment practices. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 10, 27-46.


Blau, T. H. (1984). Psychological tests in the courtroom. Professional Psychology : Research and Practice, 15, 176-186.


Colby, K. M. (1986). Ethics of computer-assisted psychotherapy. Psychiatric Annals, 16, 414-415.


Committee on Legal Issues. (1996). Strategies for private practitioners coping with subpoenas or compelled testimony for client records or test data. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 245-251.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1985). Draft guidelines for computer-based tests and interpretations. Unpublished draft, American Psychological Association's Joint Committee on Professional Practice and Standards and Psychological Tests and Assessment (Not required, but recommended at some point before you use computerized methods).


Dana, R. H. (1994). Testing and assessment ethics for all persons: Beginning an agenda. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 349-354.


Eyde, L. D, & Kowal, D. M. (1987). Computerised test interpretation services: Ethical and professional concerns regarding U.S. producers and users. Special Issue: Computerised psychological testing. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 36, 401-417.


Eyde, L. D, Robertson, G. J, Krug, S. E, Moreland, K. L, Robertson, A. G, Shewan, C. M, Harrison, P. L, Porch, B. E, & Hammer, A. L. (1993). Responsible test use: Case studies for assessing human behavior. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.


Fowler, R. D. (1986). Critique of Matarazzo's views on computerized testing: All sigma and no meaning. American Psychologist, 41, 94-96.


Garb, H., Wood, J., Lilienfeld, S., & Nezworski, M. (2002). Effective use of projective techniques in clinical practice:Let the data help with selection and interpretation. Professional Psychology, 33(5), 454-463.


Green, B. (1991). Guidelines for computer testing. In S. Wise & T. Gutkin (Eds.), The computer and the decision-making process. (Pp. 245-273). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.


Hartman, D. E. (1986). On the use of clinical psychology software: Practical, legal, and ethical concerns. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 462-465.


Keith-Speigel, P, & G. P. Koocher. (1998). Psychological assessment: testing tribulations. Ethics in psychology: Professional standards and cases, Second Edition. Hillsdale, N. J. : L. Erlbaum. Pp. 145-170.


Koocher, G. P, Goodman, G. S, White, C. S, Friedrich, W. N, Sivan, A. B, & Reynolds, C. R. (1995). Psychological science and the use of anatomically detailed dolls in child sexual-abuse assessments. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 199-222.


Lyon, D. R., & Ogloff, J. R. (2000). Legal and ethical issues in psychopathy assessment. In C. B. Gacono (Ed.), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioner's guide. The LEA series in personality and clinical psychology. (pp. 139-173) [Chapter]. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.


Matarazzo, J. D. (1986). Computerized clinical psychological test interpretations: Unvalidated plus all mean and no sigma. American Psychologist, 41, 14-24.


McMinn, M. R., Ellens, B. M., & Soref, E. (1999). Ethical perspectives and practice behaviors involving computer-based test interpretation. Assessment., 6(1), 71-77.


Messick, S. (1980). Test validity and the ethics of assessment. American Psychologist, 35, 1012-1027.


Messick, S., Weiner, I. B., Bersoff, D. N., & et al. (1995). Test validity and the ethics of assessment. In D. N. Bersoff (Ed.), Ethical conflicts in psychology (p. 249-301).


Mezzich, J. E. (1999). Ethics and comprehensive diagnosis. Psychopathology, 32(3), 135-140.


Moreland, K. L, Eyde, L. D, Robertson, G. J, Primoff, E. S, & Most, R. B. (1995). Assessment of test user qualifications: A research-based measurement procedure. American Psychologist, 50, 14-23.


Moreland, K. L. (1984). Validation of computer-based test interpretation. Unpublished manuscript Minneapolis, Minn. : NCS Professional Assessment Services


National Academy of Neuropsychology. (1999). Official Statement on Test Security. Accessed 9/22/2000 at http://nanonline.org/nan/subpages/professional/security.html


National Academy of Neuropsychology (1999). "Handling Requests to Release Test Data, Recording and/or Reproductions of Test Data" Accessed 9/22/2000 at http://NANonline.org/nan/subpages/professional/secappend.html ?


Ruiz, M., Drake, E., Glass, A., & et al. (2002). Trying to beat the system:Misuse of the internet to assist in avoiding the detection of psychological symptom dissimulation. Professional Psychology, 33(3), 294-299.


Rupert, P. A., Kozlowski, N. F., Hoffman, L. A., Daniels, D. D., & Piette, J. M. (1999, Apr). Practical and ethical issues in teaching psychological testing. Professional Psychology, 30(2), 209-214.


Tranel, D. (1994). The release of psychological data to nonexperts: Ethical and legal considerations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 33-38.


Turner, S., DeMers, S., Fox, H., & Reed, G. (2001). APA's Guidelines for test user qualifications. American Psychologist, 56(12), 1099-1113.


Victor, T. L., & Abeles, N. (2004). Coaching Clients to Take Psychological and Neuropsychological Tests: A Clash of Ethical Obligations. Professional Psychology, 35(4), 373. US: American Psychological Assn URLP: http://www.apa.org.


Wagner, E. E. (1987). A review of the 1985 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing : User responsibility and social justice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 66, 202-203.


Weiner, I. B. (1989). On competence and ethicality in psychodiagnostic assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 53, 827-831.


Wolkon, G. H, & Lyon, M. (1986). Ethical issues in computerized mental health data systems. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 37, 11-12.


A:       Disclosure of test data and materials under HIPAA


Erard, R. E. (2004). Release of test data under the 2002 ethics code and the HIPAA privacy rule A raw deal or just a half-baked idea. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(1), 23-30.


Fischer, C. T. (2004). Individualized assessment moderates the impact of HIPAA privacy rules. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(1), 35-38.


Rogers, R. (2004). APA 2002 ethics, amphibology, and the release of psychological test records: A counterperspective to Erard. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(1), 31-34.


VI: Problems with children and minors


!Koocher, G. P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. C. (1990). Children, ethics and the law: Professional issue and cases. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. (Not required, but contains a comprehensive, if somewhat dated, review. See especially, Psychotherapy with children, 21-46; Ethical issues in the psychological assessment of children, 47-68; Confidentiality,. 69-88; Children and the courts, 163-192)


Ackerman, M, & Ackerman, M. (1997). Custody evaluation practices: A survey of experienced professionals (revisited). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28 (2), 137-145.


Adelman, H. S, Lusk, R, Alvarez, B, & Acosta, N. K. (1985). Competence of minors to understand, evaluate, and communicate about their psycho-educational problems. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 426-434.


Anderson, E, Levine, M, Sharma, A, et al. (1993). Coercive uses of mandatory reporting in therapeutic relationships. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 11, 335-345.


Barnett, J. E., Hillard, D., & Lowery, K. (2001). Ethical and legal issues in the treatment of minors. In L. VandeCreek & T. L. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 19. (pp. 257-272). Sarasota, FL, US: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.


Blum, D. M. (1980). Psychological reports, expert testimony, and professional ethics. Family Law Review, 3, 33-34.


Bow, J. N., & Quinnell, F. A. (2001, Jun). Psychologists' current practices and procedures in child custody evaluations: Five years after American Psychological Association guidelines. Professional Psychology, 32(3), 261-268. US: American Psychological Assn.


Bow, J., Quinnell, M., & Assemany, A. (2002). Assessment of sexual abuse allegations in child custody cases. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 33(6), 566-575.


Brewer, T, & Faitak, M. T. (1989). Ethical guidelines for the inpatient psychiatric care of children. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 20, 142-147.


Committee on Professional Practice and Standards (1994), Guidelines for child custody evaluations in divorce proceedings, American Psychologist , 49, 677-680.


COPPS. (1999). Guidelines for psychological evaluations in child protection matters. American Psychologist, 54, 586-593.


Crenshaw, W. B, & Lichtenberg, J.W. (1993). Child abuse and the limits of confidentiality: Forewarning practices. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 11, 181-192.


Davis, J. M, & Sandoval, J. (1982). Applied ethics for school-based consultants. Professional Psychology, 13, 4, 543-551.


Deatherage v. State of Washington Examining Board of Psychology. (1997) (No. 65639-9). Sup. Ct. WA. [A critical modern case on the limits of immunity for expert witnesses. Deatherage was immune from civil suit re his testimony on child custody, but was not immune from disciplinary review by the licensing board for failure to meet standards of the profession]


Fisher, C. B. (2004). Informed Consent and Clinical Research Involving Children and Adolescents Implications of the Revised APA Ethics Code and HIPAA. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 832-839.


Fisher, C. B. (2003). Adolescent and Parent Perspectives on Ethical Issues in Youth Drug Use and Suicide Survey Research. Ethics & Behavior, 13(4), 303-332.


Fisher, C. B. (1995). The American Psychological Association's (1992) Ethics Code and the validation of sexual abuse in day-care settings. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 1, 461-478.


Ford, C. A., Thomsen, S. L., & Compton, B. (2001, Sep). Adolescents' interpretations of conditional confidentiality assurances. . Journal of Adolescent Health., 29(3), 156-159.


Franzoni, B, & Jones, R. (1981). Implications for school psychologists: The challenge of Public Law 94-142. Professional Psychology, 12, 356-362.


Galatzer-Levy, R. M., & Kraus, L. (1999). The scientific basis of child custody decisions. New York, NY, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.


Glassman, J. B. (1998). Preventing and managing board complaints: The downside risk of custody evaluation. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (2), 121-124.


Glenn, C. (1980). Ethical issues in the practice of child psychotherapy. Professional Psychology, 11, 613-619.


Greenberg, L., & Gould, J. (2001). The treating expert: A hybrid role with form boundaries. Professional Psychologiy, 32(5), 469-478.


Grisso, T. (1990). Evolving guidelines for divorce/custody evaluations. Meeting of the Southwest Region of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts (1988, Phoenix, Arizona). Family & Conciliation Courts Review, 28(1), 35-41.


Gustafson, K. E, & McNamara, J. R. (1987). Confidentiality with minor clients: Issues and guidelines for therapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 18, 503-508.


Hafemeister, T, & B. D. Sales. (1982). Responsibilities of psychologists under guardianship and conservatorship laws. Professional Psychology, 13, 354-371.


Hall, G. C, & Crowther, J. H. (1991). Psychologists' involvement in cases of child maltreatment: Additional limits of assessment methods. American-Psychologist, 46(1), 79-80.


Hofmann, A. D. (1980). Legal issues in child health care. In A. B. Friedman & R. A. Haehelman (Eds.), Behavioral Pediatrics: Psychosocial Aspects of Child Health Care McGraw-Hill pp. 272-285.


Horvath, L., Logan, T., & Walker, R. (2002). Child custody cases: A content analysis of evaluations in practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(6), 557-565.


Houlgate, L. D. (1987). Divorce child custody disputes. Journal of Divorce, 10, 15-26.


Hutz, C. S., & Koller, S. H. (1999). Methodological and ethical issues in research with street children. In M. Raffaelli, R. W. Larson & et-al. (Eds.), Homeless and working youth around the world: Exploring developmental issues. New directions for child and adolescent development, No. 85. (pp. 59-70). San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass Inc.


Jameson, E. J. (1989). Incarcerated adolescents: The need for the development of professional ethical standards for institutional health care providers. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 10, 490-499.


Jensen, P. S, Fisher, C. B, & Hoagwood, K. (1999). Ethical issues in research with children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan & et-al. (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders. (pp. 579-592). New York, NY, USA: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.


Karras, D, & Berry, K. K. (1985). Custody evaluations: A critical review. Professional Psychology, 16, 76-85.


Kirkland, K., & Kirkland, K. (2001). Frequency of child custody evaluation complaints and related disciplinary action: A survey of the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. Professional Psychology, 32(2), 171-174.


Knapp, S. J, & L. Vandecreek. (1985). Psychotherapy and privileged communications in child custody cases. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 398-407.


Koocher, G. P, Goodman, G. S, White, C. S, Friedrich, W. N, Sivan, A. B, & Reynolds, C. R. (1995). Psychological science and the use of anatomically detailed dolls in child sexual-abuse assessments. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 199-222.


Koocher, G. P. (1991). Niki goes to school: Autonomy, control, and psychiatric hospitalization. Ethics and Behavior, 1, 273-281.


Krock, L. A, & Zibbell, R. A. (1998). The perils of family and child forensic evaluations and treatment. In L. VandeCreek, & S. Knapp & et-al. (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 16. (Pp. 419-428). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.

Leong, G. B, & Eth, S. (1989). Behavioral science and the juvenile death penalty. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 17, 301-309.


Lamb, M. (1994). The Investigation of child sexual abuse: An international, interdisciplinary consensus statement. Family Law Quarterly, 28(1), 151-162.


Lynch, M. A, Glaser, D, Prior, V, & Inwood, V. (1999). Following up children who have been abused: Ethical considerations for research design. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 4(2), 68-75.


McKnight, T. (2004). Family evaluation in custody litigation: Reducing risk of ethical infractions and malpractice. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 22(2), 73-74.


Melton, G. B, & Limber, S. (1989). Psychologists' involvement in cases of child maltreatment: Limits of role and expertise. American Psychologist, 44, 1225-1233.


Melton, G. B. & Limber, S. (1991). Caution in child maltreatment cases. American-Psychologist, 46(1), 82-84.


Melton, G. B. (1987). Children, politics, and morality: The ethics of child advocacy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 16, 357-367.


Miller, V. A., Drotar, D., & Kodish, E. (2004). Children's Competence for Assent and Consent: A Review of Empirical Findings. Ethics & Behavior, 14(3), 255-295.


Milner, J. S. (1991). Additional issues in child abuse assessment. American Psychologist, 46(1), 80-81.


Morrison, H. L. (1986). The forensic evaluation and treatment of children: Ethics and values. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 14, 353-359.


Myers, J. E., & Erickson, R. (1999). Legal and ethical issues in child custody litigation. In R. M. Galatzer-Levy, L. Kraus & et-al. (Eds.), The scientific basis of child custody decisions. (pp. 12-31). New York, NY, USA: John Wiley and Sons.


Myers, J.E. (1991). "Psychologists' involvement in cases of child maltreatment: Limits of role and expertise": Comment. American-Psychologist, 46(1), 81-82.


Oberlander, L. B. (1995). Ethical responsibilities in child custody evaluations: Implications for evaluation methodology. Ethics and Behavior, 5, 311-332


Plotkin, R. (1981). When rights collide: Parents, children, and consent to treatment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 6, 121-130.


Schetky, D. H. (1998). Ethics and the clinician in custody disputes. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7 (2), 455-463.


Schoettle, U. C. (1984). Termination of parental rights: Ethical issues and role conflicts. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 629-632.


Schwitzgebel, R. L. (1980). Family law. Law and Psychological Practice New York : Wiley pp. 162-183.


Shields, J.M, & Johnson, A. (1992). Collision between law and ethics: Consent for treatment with adolescents. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 309-323.


Silverman, M. H. (1999, Sep). A survey of judges,' attorneys,' and mental health professionals' ratings of the importance of specific state statutes and ethical guidelines for child custody decisions. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(3-B), 1315.


Sullivan, J., Ramires, E., Rae, W., & et al. (2002). Factors contributing to breaking confidentiality with adolescent clients: A survey of pediatric psychologists. Professional Psychology, 33(4), 396-401.


Suppa, R. J, Skinner, C. H, & Zirkel, P. A. (1988). Conflict between ethical principles and legal protections for special services providers. Special Services in the Schools, 5, 153-162.


Taylor, L, & Adelman, H. S. Reframing the confidentiality dilemma to work in children's best interests. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 79-83.


Urquiza, A. J. (1991). Retrospective methodology in family violence research: Our duty to report past abuse. Journal-of-Interpersonal-Violence, 6(1), 119-126.


Weissman, H. N. (1991). Child custody evaluations: Fair and unfair professional practices. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 469-476


Woody, R. H. (2000). Child custody: Practice standards, ethical issues, and legal safeguards for mental health professionals. Sarasota, FL, US: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.


Zellman, G. L. (1990). Report decision making patterns among mandated child abuse reporters. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14(3), 325-336.


VII: Problems in psychological expertise in a legal context


A. Ethical codes and related materials


American Academy of Psychiatry and Law.       (1995). Ethical guidelines for the practice of forensic psychiatry. Online at http://www.aapl.org/ethics.htm


American Bar Association. Criminal Justice Mental Health Standards. Chicago, Ill. : Author


American Psychiatric Association. (1989). The principles of medical ethics with annotation especially applicable to psychiatry Washington, D. C. : Author [Conveniently reprinted in Simon, Clinical Psychiatry and the Law, 2nd Edition, 1992, Pp. 577-594]


American Psychiatric Association's Council on Psychiatry and Law. (1992). Peer review of psychiatric expert testimony. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 343-352.


American Psychological Association. (1978). Report of the task force on the role of psychology in the criminal justice system. American Psychologist, 33, 1099-1113.


American Psychological Association. (1980). Bibliography on ethics in criminal justice. Who is the client? The ethics of psychological intervention in the criminal justice system Washington, D. C.: Author pp. 154-168.


Anderten, P, Staulcup, V, & Grisso T. (1980). On being ethical in legal places. Professional Psychology, 11, 764-773.


Appelbaum, P. (1984). Psychiatric ethics in the courtroom. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 12, 225-231.


Appelbaum, P. (1992). Forensic psychiatry: The need for self-regulation. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 153-162.


Appelbaum, P. S. (1997). A theory of ethics for forensic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 25 (3), 233-247.


Brodsky, S. L. (1980). Ethical issues for psychologists in corrections. In J. Monahan (Ed.), Who is the client? The ethics of psychological intervention in the criminal justice system Washington, D. C. :American Psychological Association pp. 63-92.


Brown, L. S. (2000). Feminist ethical considerations in forensic practice. In M. M. Brabeck & et-al. (Eds.), Practicing feminist ethics in psychology. Psychology of women book series (pp. 75-100). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Ciccone, J. R, & C. D. Clements. (1984b). The ethical practice of forensic psychiatry: A view from the trenches. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 12, 253-277.


Ciccone, J. R, & C. D. Clements. (1984a). Forensic psychiatry and applied clinical ethics: theory and practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 395-399.


Clingempeel, W. G, Mulvey, E, & Reppucci N. D. (1980). A national study of ethical dilemmas of psychologists in the criminal justice system. In J. Monahan (Ed.), Who is the client? The ethics of psychological intervention in the criminal justice system Washington, D. C. :American Psychological Association pp. 126-153.


Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. (1991). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists. Law and Human Behavior, 15, 655-665.


Faust, D. (1993). Use and then prove, or prove and then use? Some thoughts on the ethics of mental health professionals' courtroom involvement. Ethics and Behavior, 3, 359-380.


Fersch, E. A. (1980). Ethical issues for psychologists in court settings. In J. Monahan (Ed.), Who is the client? Washington, D. C.:American Psychological Association pp. 43-62. Fiske, D. W. (1966). Some hypotheses concerning test adequacy. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 26, 69-88.


Fischer, M. (1997). The psychologist as a 'hired gun. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 15 (2), 25-30.


Fitch, W. L, Petrella, R. C, & Wallace J. (1987). Legal ethics and the use of mental health experts in criminal cases. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 5, 105-119.


Golding, S. L. (1990). Mental health professionals and the courts: The ethics of expertise. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 13, 261-307.


Gottlieb, M. C. (1995). Family violence and family systems: Who is the patient?. Ethics and Behavior, 5, 273-277.


Greenberg, S. A, & Shuman, D. W. (1997). Irreconcilable conflict between therapeutic and forensic roles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28 (1), 50-57.


Grote, C. L., Lewin, J. L., Sweet, J. J., & van Gorp, W. G. (2000, Feb). Responses to perceived unethical practices in clinical neuropsychology: Ethical and legal considerations. Clinical Neuropsychologist., 14(1), 119-134.


Hess, A. K. (1998). Accepting forensic case referrals: Ethical and professional considerations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (2), 109-114.


Hess, A. K. (1999). Practicing principled forensic psychology: Legal, ethical, and moral considerations. In A. K. Hess, I. B. Weiner & et-al. (Eds.), The handbook of forensic psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 673-693). New York, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons.


Johnson-Greene, D., & Bechtold, K. (2002). Ethical considerations for peer review in forensic neuropsychology. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 16(1), 97-104.


Mann, P. A. (1980). Ethical issues for psychologists in police agencies. In J. Monahan (Ed.), Who is the client? The ethics of psychological intervention in the justice system Washington, D. C. American Psychological Association pp. 18-42.


Miller, R. D. (1992). Professional versus personal ethics: Methods for system reform? Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 163-177.


Monahan, J. (1980). Who is the client? The ethics of psychological intervention in the crimninal justice system Washington, D. C.:American Psychological Association


Ogloff, J. R. (1999). Ethical and legal contours of forensic psychology. In R. Roesch & S. D. e.-a. Hart (Eds.), Psychology and law: The state of the discipline. Perspectives in law & psychology, Vol. 10. (pp. pp. 401-435). New York, NY, US: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.


Pachella, R. (1986). Personal values and the value of expert testimony. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 145-150.


Perrin, G. I, & Sales, B. D. (1994). Forensic standards in the American Psychological Association's new Ethics Code. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 376-381.


Pfeifer, J. E, & Brigham, J. C. (1993). Ethical concerns of nonclinical forensic witnesses and consultants. Ethics and Behavior, 3, 329-343.


Rappaport, J, Lamiell, J, & Seidman, E. (1980). Ethical issues for psychologists in the juvenile justice system: Know and tell. In J. Monahan (Ed.), Who is the Client? The Ethics of Psychological Intervention in the Criminal Justice System. Washington, D.C.: APA, 93-125.


Rappeport, J. (1981). Ethics and forensic psychiatry. In S. Bloch & P. Chodoff (Eds.), Psychiatric ethics Oxford : Oxford University Press pp. 255-276.


Robinson, D. N. (1974). Harm, offense, and nuisance : Some first steps in the establishment of an ethics of treatment. American Psychologist, 20, 233-238.


Rogers, R. (1987). Ethical dilemmas in forensic evaluations. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 5, 149-160.


Sadoff, R. L, & M. L. Perlin. (1982). Ethical issues in the representation of individuals in the commitment process. Law and Contemporary Problems, 45, 161-192.


Sadoff, R. L. (1984). Practical ethical problems of the forensic psychiatrist in dealing with attorneys. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 12, 243-252.


Sadoff, R. L. (1988). Ethical issues in forensic psychiatry. Psychiatric Annals, 18, 320-323.


Sales, B, & Simon, L. (1993). Institutional constraints on the ethics of expert testimony. Ethics and Behavior, 3, 231-249.


Shiffman, M. A. (1999). Ethics in forensic science and medicine: Guidelines for the forensic expert and the attorney. Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas Publisher.


Shore, M. F, & S. E. Golann. (1970). Current ethical issues in mental health. National Institute of Mental Health, National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information, Rockville, Maryland, 1970


Slovenko, R. (1987). The lawyer and the forensic expert:Boundaries of ethical practice. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 5, 119-148.


Stone, A. A. (1984). The ethical boundaries of forensic psychiatry: A view from the ivory tower. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 12, 209-219.


Strasburger, L.H, Gutheil, T.G, & Brodsky, A. (1997). On wearing two hats: Role conflict in serving as both psychotherapist and expert witness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 448-456.


Weiner, B. A. (1984). Ethical issues in forensic psychiatry: From an attorney's perspective. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 12, 253-261.

Weinstein, H. C. (2002). Ethics issues in security hospitals. . Behavioral Sciences and the Law., 20(5), 443-461.


Weinstein, H. C. (1984). How should forensic psychiatry police itself? Guidelines and grievances: The AAPL Committee on Ethics. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 12, 289-302.


Weinstock, R, Leong, G. G, Silva, J. A. (1991). Opinions by AAPL forensic psychiatrists on controversial ethical guidelines: a survey. The Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 19, 237-248.


Wettstein, R. M. (1987). Ethics and involuntary treatment, Administration in Mental Health, 15, 110-119.


Yarmey, A. D. (1986). Ethical responsibilities governing the statements experimental psychologists make in expert testimony. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 101-116.


Zelig, M. (1988). Ethical dilemmas in police psychology. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 19, 336-338.


B. Application of HIPPA to forensic practice


Connell, M. & Koocher, G. (2004). HIPAA and Forensic Practice. Accessed 7/1/2004, Http://www.kspope.com/ethics/hipaa.php


C. Execution, the death penalty and capital sentencing


Appelbaum, P. S. (1983). Death, the expert witness, and the dangers of going Barefoot. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34, 1003-1004.


Appelbaum, P. S. (1986). Competence to be executed: Another conundrum for mental health professionals. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 37, 682-684.


Appelbaum, P. S. (1987). In the wake of Ake: The ethics of expert testimony in an advocate's world. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 15, 15-25.


Appelbaum, P. S. (1990). The parable of the forensic psychiatrist: Ethics and the problem of doing harm. Special Issue: Ethical issues in forensic theory and practice. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 13(4), 249-259.


Appelbaum, P. S. (1984). Hypotheticals, psychiatric testimony, and the death sentence. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiaty and the Law, 12, 169-177.


Bonnie, R. J. (1990). Dilemmas in administering the death penalty: Conscientious abstention, professional ethics, and the needs of the legal system. Law & Human Behavior, 14, 67-90.


Bonnie, R. J. (1990). Grounds for professional abstention in capital cases: A reply to Brodsky. Law & Human Behavior, 14, 99-102.


Brodsky, S. L. (1990). Professional ethics and professional morality in the assessment of competence for execution: A response to Bonnie. Law & Human Behavior, 14, 91-97.


Dix, G. E. (1977). The death penalty, 'dangerousness', psychiatric testimony and professional ethics. American Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 151-214.


Dix, G. E. (1980). Clinical evaluation of the 'dangerousness' of 'normal' criminal defendants. Virginia Law Review, 66, 523-581.


Eastman, N, & McInerny, T. (1997). Psychiatrists and the death penalty: Ethical principles and analogies. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 8 (3), 583-601.


Ewing, C. P. (1987). Diagnosing and treating "insanity" on death row: Legal and ethical perspectives. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 5, 175-186.


Freeman, S. A. (2002, Jul). Objectivity versus beneficence in a death row evaluation. . Ethics and Behavior., 12(3), 295-298.


Greenspan, S., & Switzky, H. N. (2003). Execution exemption should be based on actual vulnerability, not disability label. Ethics & Behavior, 13(1), 19-26. Lawrence Erlbaum.


Haines, H. (1989). Primum non nocere : Chemical execution and the limits of medical social control. Social Problems, 36, 442-454.


Heilbrun, K. S. (1987). The assessment of competency for execution: An overview. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 5, 383-396.


Radelet, M. L, & Barnard, G. W. (1988). Treating those found incompetent for execution: Ethical chaos with only one solution. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 16, 297-308.


Radelet, M. L, & Barnard, G. W. (1986). Ethics and the psychiatric determination of competency to be executed. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 14, 37-53.


Showalter, C. R. (1990). Psychiatric participation in capital sentencing procedures: Ethical considerations. Special Issue: Ethical issues in forensic theory and practice. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 13(4), 261-280.


Wallace, D. H. (1992). The need to commute the death sentence: Competency for execution and ethical dilemmas for mental health professionals. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 15, 317-337.


D. Child sexual abuse and related topics


DePrince, A., Allard, C., Oh, H., & Freyd, J. What's in a name for memory errors? Implications and ethical issues arising from the use of the term "false memory" for errors in memory for details. Ethics and Behavior, 141(1)(3-4), 201-223.


Kermani, E. J, & Kantor, J. E. (1994). Psychiatry and the death penalty: The landmark Supreme Court cases and their ethical implications for the profession. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 22, 95-108.


Mossman, D. (1987). Assessing and restoring competency to be executed: Should psychiatrists participate? Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 5, 397-409.


E. Forensic assessment


Butcher, J. N, & Pope, K. S. (1993). Seven issues in conducting forensic assessments: Ethical responsibilities in light of new standards and new tests. Ethics and Behavior, 3, 267-288.


Campbell, T. W. (1999). Challenging the evidentiary reliability of DSM-IV. American Journal of Forensic Psychology., 17(1), 47-68.


Campbell, T. W. (2000). Sexual predator evaluations and phrenology: Considering issues of evidentiary reliability. Behavioral Sciences and the Law., 18(1), 111-130. US: John Wiley and Sons Inc.


Heilbrun, K. (2001). Perspectives in Law and Psychology. Vol. 12: Principles of Forensic Mental Health Assessment. New York: Kluwer.


Heilbrun, K., Marczyk, G., & MeMatteo, D. (2002). Forensic Mental Health Assessment: A casebook. New York: Oxford University Press.


Heilbrun, K.S, Rosenfield, B, Warren, J, & Collins, S. (1994). The use of third-party information in forensic assessments: A two-state comparison. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 22, 399-406.


Hess, A., & Weiner, I. (2006). Handbook of Forensic Psychology, Third Edition. New York: Wiley.


LaCalle, J. J. (1987). Forensic psychological evaluations through an interpreter: Legal and ethical issues. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 5, 29-43.


Lynch, J. K., & McCaffrey, R. J. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessments in the Presence of Third Parties: Ethical Issues and Literature Review. NYS Psychologist, 16(3), 25-29.


McDonald, J. J, & Kulick, F. B. (2001). Mental and emotional injuries in employment litigation Second edition. BNA Books: Washington, DC.


National Center for State Courts. (1986). Guidelines for involuntary civil commitment. Mental and Physical Disabilities Law Reporter, 10, 409-513.


Ochroch, R. (1990). Legal and psychological competency: Issues in clinical assessment of the elderly. Forensic Reports, 3(1), 91-105.


Shuman, D. (1993). The use of empathy in forensic examinations. Ethics and Behavior, 3, 289-302.


Shuman, D., Greenberg, S., Heilbrun, K., & Foote, W. (1998). An immodest proposal:Should treating mental health professionals be barred from testifying about their patients? Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 509-523.


Simon, R. I, & Wettstein, R. M. (1997). Toward the development of guidelines for the conduct of forensic psychiatric examinations. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 25 (1), 17-30.


Skeem, J. L, & Golding, S. L. (1998). Community examiners' evaluations of competence to stand trial: Common problems and suggestions for improvement. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, 357-367.


F. Expert testimony and specific content areas


Baker-Jackson, M. et al (1985). Ethical standards for court-connected mediators. Mediation Quarterly, 8, 67-72.


Barsky, A., & Gould, J. (2002). Clinicians in court: A guide to subpoenas,depositions, testifying, and everything else you need to know. New York: Guilford.


Beck, J. C. (1985). The potentially violent patient and the Tarasoff decision in psychiatric practice Washington, D. C. : American Psychiatric Press, Inc. pp. 1-143.


Berlin, F. S. (1989). The paraphilias and Depo-Provera: Some medical, ethical and legal considerations. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 17, 233-239.


Bermant, G. (1986). Two conjectures about the issue of expert testimony. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 97-100.


Bersoff, D. N. (1986). Psychologists and the judicial systems: Broader perspectives. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 151-166.


Brodsky, S. L. (2004). Coping with cross-examination and other pathways to effective testimony. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Buckhout, R. (1986). Personal values and expert testimony. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 127-144.


Clements, C. D, & R. Ciccone. (1984). Ethics and expert witnesses: The troubled role of psychiatrists in court. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 12, 127-136.


Dearington, M. (1999). Commentary on "Attorneys' pressures on the expert witness.". Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law., 27(4), 559-562.


Eisner, D. A. (1985). The forensic psychologist as expert witness: Satisfying requirements for qualifications, psychological evaluation and opinions. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 3, 19-27.


Evans, D. R. (1987). The psychologist as an expert witness in civil and criminal litigation. Canadian Psychology, 28, 274-279.


Faigman, D. L, Porter, E, & Saks, M. J. (1994). Check your crystal ball at the courthouse door, please: Exploring the past, understanding the present, and worrying about the future of scientific evidence. Cardozo Law Review, 15, 1799.


Gardner, W, Lidz, C. W, Mulvey, E. P, & Shaw, E. C. (1996). Clinical versus actuarial predictions of violence in patients with mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 602-609.


Golding, S. L. (1992). Increasing the reliability, validity and relevance of expert psychological evidence: An introduction to the Special Section on Expert Evidence. Law and Human Behavior, 16, 253-256.


Goldman, A. H. (1986). Cognitive psychologists as expert witnesses: A problem in professional ethics. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 15-28.


Goldstein, R. L. (1999). Commentary on "Attorneys' pressures on the expert witness." [Journal Article]. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law., 27(4), 554-558.


Goldstein, R. L. (1987). Hiring the hired gun: Lawyers and their psychiatric experts. Legal Studies Forum, 11, 41-53.


Grisso, T. (1987). The economic and scientific future of forensic psychological assessment. American Psychologist, 42, 831-840.


Gutheil, T. G., & Simon, R. I. (1999). Attorneys' pressures on the expert witness: Early warning signs of endangered honesty, objectivity, and fair compensation. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law., 27(4), 546-553.


Haddad, L. K. (1985). Predicting the supreme court's response to the criticism of psychiatric predictions of dangerousness in civil commitment proceedings. Nebraska Law Review, 64, 215-247.


Hardy, D. W. (2000). "Attorney's pressures on the expert witness: Early warning signs of endangered honesty, objectivity, and fair compensation": Comment. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law., 28(2), 250.


Hastie, R. (1986). Notes on the psychologist as expert witness. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 79-82.


Hollien, H. (1990). The expert witness: Ethics and responsibilities. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 35(6), 1414-1423.


Horgan, D. D. (1989). Unexpected advocacy and the personal characteristics of experts: A brief note. Forensic Reports, 2, 163-171.


Imwinkelried, E. J. (1996). Evidence law: Uncertainty of the scientific enterprise. The Champion, 20(6), 12-13;15;50-57.


Janocko, K. M, & Lee, S. S. (1988). Ethical implications of deinstitutionalization


Kargon, R. (1986). Expert testimony in historical perspective. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 1-14.


Katz, J. (1992). "The fallacy of the impartial expert" revisited. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 141-152.


Konecni, V. J, & E. B. Ebbesen. (1986). Courtroom testimony by psychologists on eyewitness identification issues: Critical notes and reflections. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 117-126.


Kreutzer, J. S, Harris, M. J, & Myers, S. L. (1990). Neuropsychological issues in litigation following traumatic brain injury. Special Section: Forensic legal medical issues of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology, 4(4), 249-259.


Lavin, M, & Sales, B. D. (1998). Moral justifications for limits on expert testimony. In S. J. Ceci, H. E. Hembrooke & et al. (Eds.), Expert witnesses in child sexual abuse cases: What can and should be said in court (S. J. Ceci, H. E. Hembrooke & et al, Eds.) (59-81). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.


Learned Hand. (1901). Historical and practical considerations regarding expert testimony. Harvard Law Review, 15, 40-56.


Lempert, R. O. (1986). Social sciences in court: On "Eyewitness experts". Law and Human Behavior, 10, 167-182.


Loftus, E. F. (1986). Experimental psychologist as advocate or impartial educator. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 63-78.


Morse, S. J. (1985). Excusing the crazy: The insanity defense reconsidered. Southern California Law Review, 58, 777-836.


Parry, J. W, Hominik, D, Skoler, G, & Altschwager, H. (1998). National Benchbook on Psychiatric and Psychological Evidence and Testimony. Washington, DC: American Bar Association.


Poythress, N. G. (1980). Coping on the witness stand: Response to "learned treatises. Professional Psychology, 11, 139-149.


Poythress, N. G. (1983). Judicial preference regarding expert testimony. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 10, 175-194.


Resnick, P. J. (1986). Perceptions of psychiatric testimony: A historical perspective on the hysterical invective. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 14, 203-219.


Rotgers, F, & Barrett, D. (1996). Daubert v. Merrell Dow and expert testimony by clinical psychologists: Implications and recommendations for practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 467-474.


Saks, M. J. (1976). The limits of scientific jury selection: Ethical and empirical. Jurimetrics Journal, 3, 3, 17-22.


Sales, B, & Shuman, D. (1993). Reclaiming the integrity of science in expert witnessing. Ethics and Behavior, 3, 223-229.


Salter, D. S. (1987). The duty to warn third parties: A retrospective on Tarasoff. Rutgers Law Journal, 18, 145-164.


Schwartz, H. I, & Boland, R. (1995). Using science to influence the Supreme Court on the right to refuse treatment: Amicus curiae briefs in Washington V. Harper. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 23, 135-146.


Sgroi, S. M. (1999). The McColgan case: Increasing public awareness of professional responsibility for protecting children from physical and sexual abuse in the Republic of Ireland. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 8(1), 113-127.


Slovenko, R. (2001). "The psychologically vulnerable witness: An emerging forensic consulting role": Commentary: Psychiatric consultation on witness preparation. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law., 29(1), 42-45. US: American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.


United States v. Bighead. (1997). F. 3d, 128, 1329. [Does “experiential expertise count as scientific expertise under Daubert?]


Van den Haag, E, & T. Litwack. (1984). The insanity defense: An exchange. Criminal Justice Ethics, 3, 3-26.


Wasyliw, O. E, Cavanaugh, J. L, & Rogers R. (1985). Beyond the scientific limits of expert testimony. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 13, 147-158.


Weinstein, J. B. (1986). Improving expert testimony. University of Richmond Law Review, 20, 473-497.


Woocher, F. D. (1986). Legal principles governing expert testimony by experimental psychologists. Law and Human Behavior,10, 47-62.


Woody, R. H. (1997). Dubious and bogus credentials in mental health practice. Ethics and Behavior, 7 (4), 337-345.


F. Expert testimony and particular areas


VIII: Ethnic, cultural psychological and gender diversity/ADA


Adler, T. (1993). Separate gender norms on tests raise questions. APA Monitor, January, 1993, 6.


Ali, S., Liu, W., & Humedian, M. (2004). Islam 101: Understanding the religion and therapy implications. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(6), 635-642.


Barnett, J. E., & Polakoff, N. (2000). Maintaining professional competence for working with culturally diverse and aging clients. In L. Vandecreek, T. L.Jackson & et-al. (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 18. (pp. 257-272). Sarasota, FL, US: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.


Beauvais, F. (1999). Obtaining consent and other ethical issues in the conduct of research in American Indian communities. [Journal Article]. Drugs and Society, 14(1-2), 167-184.


Bernal, M., & Castro, F. G. (1994). Are clinical psychologists prepared for service and research with ethnic minorities. American Psychologist, 49, 797-805.


Bersoff, D. N. (1983). Regarding psychologists testily: The legal regulation ofpsychological assessment. In C. J. Scheirer & B. L. Hammonde (Eds.), Psychology and the Law (Master Lecture Series, Vol. 2) (pp. 41-88). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.


Boehm, V. R. (1968). Mr. prejudice, Miss sympathy and the authoritarian personality: An application of psychological measuring techniques to the problem of jury bias. Wisconsin Law Review, 1968, 734-750.


Brown, D. C. (1994). Subgroup norming: Legitimate testing practice or reverse discrimination. American Psychologist, 49, 927-928.


Brown, L. S. (1988). Beyond thou shalt not: Thinking about ethics in the lesbian therapy community. Special Issue: Lesbianism: Affirming nontraditional roles. Women & Therapy, 8, 13-25.


Butler, B. E., & Petrulis, J. (1999, Feb). Some further observations concerning Sir Cyril Burt. British Journal of Psychology., 90(1), 155-160.


Cleary, A. (L975). Educational uses of tests with disadvantaged students. American Psychologist, 30, 15-41.


Comas-Diaz, L. (1992). The future of psychotherapy with ethnic minorities. Special Issue: The future of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 29(1), 88-94.


Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns (1990). Bias in psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men. Washington, D.C.:American Psychological Association.


Cronbach, L. J. (L975). Five decades of public controversy over mental testing. American Psychologist, 30, 1-14.


Dana, R. H. (1994). Testing and assessment ethics for all persons: Beginning and agenda. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 349-354.


Defunis v. Odegaard, 42 U.S.L.W. 4578 (1974)


Division 44. (2000). Guidelines for psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 55(12), 1440-1451.


Flowers, B., & Richardson, F. (1996). Why is multiculturalism good? American Psychologist, 51(6), 609-621.


Flynn, J. (1999). Searching for justice:The discovery of IQ gains over time. American Psychologist, 54(1), 5-20.


Foote, W. (2000). A model for psychological consultation in cases involving the Americans with Disabilities Act. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 31(2), 190-196.


Forstein, M. (2001). Overview of ethical and research issues in sexual orientation therapy. [Journal Article]. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy., 5(3-4), 167-179. US: Haworth Press.


Garb, H. N. (1997). Race bias, social class bias, and gender bias in clinical judgment. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4(2), 99-120.


Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2000). Psychological impairment under the Americans with Disabilities Act:Legal guidelines. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 31(2), 197-205.


Gottfredson, L. (1994). The science and politics of race-norming. American Psychologist, 49, 955-963.


Greene, R. L. (1987). Ethnicity and MMPI performance: A review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 497-512.


Greenfield, P. (1997). You can't take it with you: Why ability assessment don't cross-cultures. American Psychologist, 52(10), 1115-1124.


Haldeman, D. C. (1994). The practice and ethics of sexual orientation conversion therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 221-227.


Hall, G. C. N. (2001, Jun). Psychotherapy research with ethnic minorities: Empirical, ethical, and conceptual issues. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology., 69(3), 502-510.


Hartung, C., & Widiger, T. (1998). Gender differences in the diagnosis of mental disorders:Conclusions and controversies of the DSM-IV. Psychological Bulletin, 123(3), 260-278.


Helms, J. (2002). A remedy for the black-white test-score disparity. American Psychologist, 57(4), 303-304.


Helms, J. E. (1992). Why is there no study of cultural equivalence in standardized cognitive ability testing? American Psychologist, 47, 1083-1101.


Hernstein, R. J. (Monthly). I.Q. Atlantic, l971, Sept..


Hilliard, A. G. (1992). IQ and the courts: Larry P. v. Wilson Riles and PASE v. Hannon. In W. B. H. A. Burlew, African American Psychology: Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 199-218). Newbury Park, N. J.: Sage Publications.


Iijima-Hall, C. (1997). Cultural malpractice: The growing obsolenscence of psychology with the changing U.S. population. American Psychologist, 52(6), 642-651.


Jensen, A. R. (1980). Precis of bias in mental testing. The behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 325-371.


Johns, L., Nazroo, J., Bebbington, P., & Kuipers, E. (2002, Feb). Occurrence of hallucinatory experiences in a community sample and ethnic variations. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 174-8.


Kamin, L. D. (1974). The science and politics of I.Q.. Potomac, MD:: Lawrence Erlbaum.


Keith-Speigel, P., & Koocher, G. P. (1985). Psychological assessment: Testing tribulations. Hillsdale, N. J.: L. Erlbaum.


Lasser, J., & Gottlieb, M. (2004). Treating patients distressed regarding their sexual orientation: Clinical and ethical alternatives. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(2), 194-200.


Lopez, S., & Guarnaccia, P. (2000). Cultural psychopathology:Uncovering the social world of mental illness. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 571-598.


Mezzich, J. E., Kirmayer, L. J., Kleinman, A., Fabrega-Jr, H., Parron, D. L., Good, B. J., et al. (1999, Aug). The place of culture in DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(8), 457-464. US: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.


Morrow, S. L. (2000). First do no harm: Therapist issues in psychotherapy with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients. In R. M. Perez, K. A. DeBord & et-al. (Eds.), Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. (pp. 137-156). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.


Nagayama-Hall, G., Bansal, A., & Lopez, I. (1999). Ethnicity and psychopathology: A meta-analytic review of 31 years of comparative MMPI/MMPI-2 research. Psychological Assessment, 11(2), 186-197.


Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs. (1993). Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic and Culturally Diverse Populations. American Psychologist, 48, 45-48.


Payne, D., Hartman, S., & Villere, M. (1990). Between a rock and a hard place: The issue of fairness in testing. Labor Law Journal, 1990, 301-306.


Payton, C. R. (1994). Implications of the 1992 Ethics Code for diverse groups. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 317-320.


Rayburn, C. A. (1985). Some ethical considerations in psychotherapy with religious women. Psychotherapy, 22, 803-812.


Riger, S. (1991). Gender dilemmas in sexual harassment policies and procedures. American Psychologist, 46, 497-505.


Rogler, L. (1999). Methodological sources of cultural insensitivity in mental health research. American Psychologist, 54(6), 424-433.


Sackett, P., & Wilk, S. L. (1994). Within-group norming and other forms of score adjustment in preemployment testing. American Psychologist, 49, 929-954.


Sackett, P., Schmitt, N., Ellingson, J., & Kabin, M. (2001). High-stakes testing in employment, credentialing and higher education. American Psychologist, 56(4), 302-318.


Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1974). Racial and ethnic bias in psychological tests:Divergent implications of two definitions of test bias. American Psychologist, 29, 1-8.


Schmitt, N., Sackett, P., & Ellingson, J. (2002). No easy solution to subgroup differences. American Psychologist, 57(4), 305.


Schneider, M., Brown, L., & Glassgold, J. (2002). Implementing the resolution on appropriate therapeutic responses to sexual orientation: A guide to the perplexed. Professional Psychology, 33(3), 265-276.


Schneider, M., Brown, L., & Glassgold, J. (2002). Implementing the resolution on appropriate therapeutic responses to sexual orientation: A guide to the perplexed. Professional Psychology, 33(3), 265-276.


Sherwood, J. J., & Nataupsky, M. (L968). Predicting the conclusions of Negro-White intelligenceresearch from biographical characteristics of the investigator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 53-58.


Stuart, R. (2004). Twelve practical suggestions for achieving multicultural competence. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(1), 3-9.


Sue, S. (1983). Ethnic minority issues in psychology. American Psychologist, 38, 583-592.


Sue, S. (1988). Psychotherapeutic services for ethnic minorities: Two decades of research findings. American Psychologist, 43(4), 301-308.


Sue, S. (1998). In search of cultural competence in psychotherapy and counseling. American Psychologist, 53(4), 440-448.


Sue, S. (1999). Science, ethnicity, and bias:Where have we gone wrong. American Psychologist, 54(12), 1070-1077.


Suzuki, L.A, & Valencia, R.R. (1997). Race-ethnicity and measured intelligence. American Psychologist, 52, 1103-1114.


Tsai, J. L., Butcher, J. N., Munoz, R. F., & Vitousek, K. (2001). Culture, ethnicity, and psychopathology. In P. B. Sutker & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology (3rd ed.) (pp. 105-127). New York: Kluwer.


Tseng, W. S. (2001). Handbook of cultural psychiatry. San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press.


Urbach, P. (L974). Progress and degeneration in the "IQ debate, Parts I andII. British Journal of the Philosophy of Science, 25, 99-135; 235-259.


Wiederman, M., & Sansone, R. (1999). Sexuality training for professional psychologists:A national survey of training directors of doctoral programs and predoctoral internships. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 30(3), 312-317.


Williams, C., & Abeles, N. (2004). Issues and implications of deaf culture in therapy. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(6), 643-648.


Williams, W.M. (1997). Consequences of how we define and assess intelligence. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 2, 506-535.


Wyatt, G. E. (1990). Sexual abuse of ethnic minority children: Identifying dimensions of victimization. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 338-343.


Wyche, L. G, & Novick, M. R. (1992). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing: The issue of test bias from the perspective of school psychology and psychometrics. In W. B. H. A. Burlew, African American Psychology: Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 229-235). Newbury Park, N. J.: Sage Publications.


Yarhouse, M. A, & VanOrman, B. T. (1999). When psychologists work with religious clients: Applications of the general principles of ethical conduct. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(6), 557-562.


IX: Special populations and problems -- prisoners. the elderly, presumptively incompetent individuals, community psychology, and intervention/policy research


Prisoners and violent patients


Arboleda-Florez, J. (1991). Ethical issues regarding research on prisoners. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 35(1), 1-5.


Arboleda-Florez, J. (1987). Psychiatric ethics in correctional services. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 31, v-ix.

 

Kalmbach, K., & Lyons, P. (2003). Ethical and legal standards for research in prison. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 21, 671-686.

 

Friedman, P. R. (1975). Legal regulation of applied behavior analysis in mental institutions and prisons. Arizona Law Review, 17, 39-104.


Overholser, J. C. (1987). Ethical issues in prison research: A risk/benefit analysis. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 5, 187-202.


Tishler, C., Gordon, L., & Landry-Meyer, L. (2000). Managing the violent patient: A guide for psychologists and other mental health professionals. Professional Psychology, 31(1), 34-41.



Presumptive incompetence


Appelbaum, P, & Grisso, T. (1988). Assessing patients' capacities to consent to treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 1635-1638.


Backlar, P. (1999). Public bioethics and research involving persons with mental disorders. Community Mental Health Journal, 35(5), 389-399.


Michels, R. (2004). Research on Persons With Impaired Decision Making and the Public Trust. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(5), 777-779. US: American Psychiatric Assn URLP: http://www.appi.org.


Weiss-Roberts, L., Warner, T. D., & Brody, J. L. (2000). Perspectives of patients with schizophrenia and psychiatrists regarding ethically important aspects of research participation. American Journal of Psychiatry., 157(1), 67-74.


Elderly


American Psychological Association. (2004). Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. 59, 4, 236-260.


American Psychological Association. (1998). Guidelines for the evaluation of dementia and age-related cognitive decline. American Psychologist, 53, 1298-1303.


Baker, R, Lichtenberg, P, & Moye, J. (1998). A practice guideline for assessment of competency and capacity of the older adult. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29 (2), 149-154.


Graham, K, & Romaniec, J. (1986). Case-finding vs. right to privacy: A general dilemma emerging from a study of the elderly. Journal of Drug Issues, 16, 391-395.


Herr, S. S. (1989). Disabled clients, constituencies, and counsel: Representing persons with developmental disabilities. Milbank Quarterly, 67, 352-379.


Kapp, M. B. (1988). Forcing services on at-risk older adults: When doing good is not so good. Social Work in Health Care, 13, 1-13.


Kleespies, P. K. (2004). Ethical and legal issues in end-of-life decisions. In P. Kleespies (Ed.), Life and death decisions: Psychological and ethical considerations in end-of-life care (pp. 27-53). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Levkoff, S, & Wetle, T. (1989). Clinical decision making in the care of the aged. Journal of Aging & Health, 1, 83-101.


Nelson, W. A, & Bernat, J. L. (1989). Decisions to withhold or terminate treatment. Neurologic Clinics, 7, 759-774.


Palmer, B., Dunn, L., Appelbaum, P., & et al. (2004). Assessment of capacity to consent to research among older persons with schizophrenia, Alzheimer Disease, or Diabetes Mellitus. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 726-733.


Ochroch, R. (1990). Legal and psychological competency: Issues in clinical assessment of the elderly. Forensic Reports, 3, 91-105.


Van der Sluis, I. (1988). How voluntary is voluntary euthanasia? Special Issue: Controversies in palliative care: A thematic issue. Journal of Palliative Care, 4, 107-109.


Werth, J. L. J. (1999). When is a mental health professional competent to assess a person's decision to hasten death. Ethics and Behavior., 9(2), 141-157.


Wolf, R. S. (2000). Elder abuse. In V. B. Van Hasselt, M. Hersen & et-al. (Eds.), Aggression and violence: An introductory text. (pp. 135-151). Boston, MA,: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.


Community and rural psychology


Albee, G.W. (1986). Toward a just society: Lessons from observations on the primary prevention of psychopathology. American Psychologist, 41, 891-898.


Alderfer, C. P. (1989). Commentary on "Responsible to whom? Responsible for what?" American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 347-354.


Bond, M. A. (1989). Ethical dilemmas in context: Some preliminary questions. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 355-359.


Christensen, R.C. (1997). Ethical issues in community mental health. Community Mental Health Journal, 33, 5-11. $NOS$


Davidson, W. S. (1989). Ethical and moral dilemmas in community psychology: Tarnishing the angels' halo. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 385-389.


Elpers, J. R. (1986). Dividing the mental health dollar: The ethics of managing scarce resources. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 37, 671-672.


Faulkner, K. K, & Faulkner, T.A. (1997). Managing multiple relationships in rural communities: Neutrality and boundary violations. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4(3), 225-234. $NOS$


Hargrove, D. S. (1986). Ethical issues in rural mental health practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 20-23.


Heller, K. (1989). Ethical dilemmas in community intervention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 367-378.


O'Neill, P. T. (1989). Responsible to whom? Responsible to what? Some ethical issues in community intervention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 323-341.


Perlman, B. (1977). Ethical concerns in community mental health. American Journal of Community Psychology, 5, 45-57.


Pettifor, J. L. (1986). Ethical standards for community psychology. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 5, 39-48.


Pope, K. S. (1990). Identifying and implementing ethical standards for primary prevention. Prevention in Human Services, 8(2), 43-64.


Pope, K. S. (1989). A community psychology of ethics: Responding to "Responsible to whom? Responsible for what?" American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 343-345.


Punch, M. (1989). Researching police deviance: A personal encounter with the limitations and liabilities of field-work. British Journal of Sociology, 40, 177-204.


Reece, R. D. (1989). The new medical ethics and mental health administration. Psychiatric Annals, 19, 428-431.


Reinharz, S. (1989). Taking on the roles of educator and mediator: Two means of preventing ethical conflicts for community psychologists when financial resources are scarce. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 391-396.


Riger, S. (1989).The politics of community intervention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 379-383.


Rinella, V. (1986). Ethical issues and psychiatric cost-containment strategies. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 9, 125-136.


Roberts, L. W, Battaglia, J, & Epstein, R. S. (1999). Frontier ethics: Mental health care needs and ethical dilemmas in rural communities. Psychiatric Services, 50(4), 497-503.


Schank, J.A, & Skovholt, T. M. (1997). Dual-relationship dilemmas of rural and small-community psychologists. Profesional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 44-49.


Snow, D. L., Grady, K., & Goyette-Ewing, M. (2000). A perspective on ethical issues in community psychology. In J. Rappaport, E. Seidman & et-al. (Eds.), Handbook of community psychology. (pp. 897-917). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.


Stockman, A. F. (1990). Dual relationships in rural mental health practice: An ethical dilemma. Journal of Rural Community Psychology, 11(2), 31-45.


Trickett, E. J. (1992). Prevention ethics: Explicating the context of prevention activities. Ethics and Behavior, 2, 91-100.


Trickett, E. J, Levin, G. B. (1990). Paradigms for prevention: Providing a context for confronting ethical issues. Prevention in Human Services, 8(2), 3-21.


Tymchuk, A. (1989). Anticipatory ethical and policy decision making and community psychology. American Journal ofCommunity Psychology, 17, 361-365.


Webb, W. L. (1989). Ethical psychiatric practice in a new economic climate. Psychiatric Annals, 19, 443-447.


Intervention/policy research


Cecil, J. S, & Boruch, R. (1988). Compelled disclosure of research data: An early warning and suggestions for psychologists. Law & Human Behavior, 12, 181-189.


Dubler, N. N. (1986). Treating research subjects fairly. IRB: A Review of Human Subjects Research, 8, 7-9.


Hedrick, T. E. (1988). Justifications for the sharing of social science data.Law & Human Behavior, 12, 163-171.


Lehrman, N. S, & Sharav, V. H. (1997). Ethical problems in psychiatric research. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 24 (2), 227-250.


Melton, G. B. (1988). Must researchers share their data? Law & Human Behavior, 12, 159-162.


Owens, R. G, & Hardley, E. M. (1985). Plagiarism in psychology: What can and should be done? Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 38, 331-333.


Sieber, J. E. (1988). Data sharing: Defining problems and seeking solutions. Law & Human Behavior, 12, 199-206.


Turnbull, J. E, McLeod, J. D, Callahan, J. M, & Kessler, R. C. (1988). Who should ask? Ethical interviewing in psychiatric epidemiology studies. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58, 228-239.


Issues in the evaluation and supervision of graduate students and faculty-student relationships


!Rosenberg, J. I., Getzelman, M., Arcinue, F., & Oren, C. Z. (2005). An exploratory look at students' experiencies of problematic peers in academic professional psychology programs. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(6), 665-673.


Barnett-Queen, T., & Larrabee, M. J. (2000). Sexually oriented relationships between educators and students


Bernard, J. L., & Jara, C. S. (1986). The failure of clinical psychology graduate students to apply understood ethical principles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 313-315.


Biaggio, M, Duffy, R, & Staffelbach, D. F. (1998). Obstacles to addressing professional misconduct. Clinical Psychology Review, 18 (3), 273-285. (Highly recommended discussion of why we do/don’t decide to report/investigate ethical problems with colleagues)


Birch, M, Elliott, D, & Trankel, M. A. (1999). Black and white and shades of gray: A portrait of the ethical professor. Ethics and Behavior, 9(3), 243-261.


Board of Curators of the University of Missouri v. Horowitz. 435 U.S. 78 [1978].


Branstetter, S. A., & Handelsman, M. M. (2000). Graduate teaching assistants: Ethical training, beliefs, and practices. Ethics and Behavior., 10(1), 27-50.


Bremer, D. A. (1998). Ethics in clinical student supervision. In R. M. J. Anderson, T. L. Needels & et-al. (Eds.), Avoiding ethical misconduct in psychology specialty areas (pp. 298-311).


Canon, H. J. (1992). Psychologist as university administrator: Visible standard bearer. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 211-215.


Coll, K. M. (1991). Mandatory psychiatric withdrawal from public colleges and universities: A review of potential legal violations and appropriate use. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 5(3), 91-98.


Costanzo, M, & Handelsman, M. M. (1998). Teaching aspiring professors to be ethical teachers: Doing justice to the case study method. Teaching of Psychology, 25(2), 97-102.


Costanzo, M., & Handelsman, M. M. (1998). Teaching aspiring professors to be ethical teachers: Doing justice to the case study method. . Teaching of Psychology., 25(2), 97-102.


Dodds, J. (2002, Jun). Issues affecting psychology graduate students' willingness to intervene with impaired peers. (Doctoral dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(11-B), 5369.


Fine, M.A. & Kurdek, L.A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist, 11, 1141-1147.


Fly, B. J, van Bark, W. P, & et al. (1997). Ethical transgressions of psychology graduate students: Critical incidents with implications for training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28 (5), 492-495.


Forrest, L. Elman, N., & Rodolfa, E. (eds). (2004) Professional Response to problems in psychology training [Special issue]. Professional Psychology:Research and Practice, 35(2), 115-147.


Frame, M, & Stevens-Smith, P. (1995). Out of harm's way: Enhancing monitoring and dismissal processes in counselor education programs. Counselor Education and Supervision, 35, 118-129.


Garfinkel, P. E, Dorian, B, Sadavoy, J, & Bagby, R. M. (1997). Boundary violations and departments of psychiatry. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42(7), 764-770.


Glaser, R. D., & Thorpe, J. S. (1986). Unethical intimacy : A survey of sexual contact and advances between sychology educators and female graduate students. American Psychologist, 41, 43-51.


Goodyear, R. K., Crego, C. A., & Johnston, M. W. (1992). Ethical issues in the supervision of student research: A survey of critical incidents. Professional Psychology: Research and


Halbesleben, J., Buckley, M., & Sauer, N. D. (2004). The role of pluralistic ignorance in perceptions of unethical behavior: An investigation of attorneys' and students' perceptions of ethical behavior. Ethics and Behavior, 14(1), 17-30.


Hamilton, J. C., & Spruill, J. (1999). Identifying and reducing risk factors related to trainee-client sexual misconduct. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(3), 318-327.


Hammel, G. A., Olkin, R., & Taube, D. O. (1996). Student-educator sex in clinical and counseling psychology doctoral training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 93-97.


Handelsman, M. M. (2001). Learning to become ethical. In S. Walfish & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Succeeding in graduate school: The career guide for psychology students (pp. 189-202). Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum.


Holmes, D. L, Rupert, P. A, Ross, S. A, & Shapera, W. E. (1999). Student perceptions of dual relationships between faculty and students. Ethics and Behavior, 9(2), 79-107.


Holmes, D. L., Rupert, P. A., Ross, S. A., & Shapera, W. E. (1999). Student perceptions of dual relationships between faculty and students. . Ethics and Behavior., 9(2), 79-107.


Housman, L. M., & Stake, J. E. (1999). The current state of sexual ethics training in clinical psychology:Issues of quantity, quality, and effectiveness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(3), 302-311.


Huntsinger, P. R, & Holmes, D. L. (1994). Protecting students's rights while protecting the welfare of society: Ethical Issues for academic psychologists. Unpublished manuscript,


Johnson, W. B., Porter, K., Campbell, C. D., & Kipko, E. N. (2005). Character and fitness requirements for professional psychologists: An examination of state licensing application forms. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 367(6), 654-662.


Johnson, W. B., & Corser, R. (1998). Learning ethics the hard way: Facing the ethics committee. Teaching of Psychology, 25(1), 26-28.


Jones, K. D. (1999). Ethics in publication. Counseling and Values. Counseling and Values, 43(2), 99-105.


Kay, J., & Roman, B. (1999). Prevention of sexual misconduct at the medical school, residency, and practitioner levels. In J. D. Bloom, C. C. Nadelson & et-al. (Eds.), Physician sexual misconduct. (pp. pp. 153-177). Washington, DC, USA.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.


Keith-Spiegel, P., Tabachnick, B. G., & Whitley, B. E. J. W. J. (1998). Why professors ignore cheating: Opinions of a national sample of psychology instructors. Ethics and Behavior., 8(3), 215-227.


Kuyken, W. (1999). Power and clinical psychology: A model for resolving power-related ethical dilemmas. Ethics and Behavior., 9(1), 21-37.


Ladany, N., Lehrman-Waterman, D., Molinaro, M., & Wolgast, B. (1999, May). Psychotherapy supervisor ethical practices: Adherence to guidelines, the supervisory working alliance, and supervisee satisfaction. Counseling Psychologist. Counseling Psychologist, 27(3), 443-475.


Lamb, D. H., & Catanzaro, S. J. (1998). Sexual and nonsexual boundary violations involving psychologists, clients, supervisees, and students: Implications for professional practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29(5), 498-503.


Mearns, J, & Allen, G. J. (1991). Graduate students' experiences in dealing with impaired peers, compared with faculty predictions: An exploratory study. Ethics and Behavior, 1(3), 191-202.


Milam, S. D, & Marshall, R. D. (1987). Impact of Regents of the University of Michigan v. Ewing on academic dismissals from graduate and professional schools. Journal of College and University Law, 13, 335-.


Miller, M. (1999). Ethical considerations in the teaching of trauma and dissociation: Student exposure and unexpected memory. In L. M. Williams & V. L. Banyard (Eds.), Trauma & memory (pp. 67-75). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Moore, E. (1997). What are we teaching our students? Therapist sexual misconduct and clinical graduate students' experiences with their educators. Feminism and Psychology, 7(3), 340-347.


Needels, T. L. (1998). Ethical issues in the mentoring relationship. In Anderson, Robert M. Jr.; Needels, Terri L.; et-al. (1998). Avoiding ethical misconduct in psychology specialty areas. (pp. 281-297).


Needels, T. L. (1998). Ethical issues in the mentoring relationship. In R. M. J. Anderson, T. L. Needels & et-al. (Eds.), Avoiding ethical misconduct in psychology specialty areas. (pp. 281-297).


Parker, D. L. (1998). Students' perceptions of unethical conduct. Academic Medicine, 73(11), 1125-1126.


Pavela, G. (1985). The dismissal of students with mental disorders: Legal issues, Policy considerations, and Alternative responses. Ashville, N.C.: College Administration Publications.


Paxton, C., Lovett, J., & Riggs, M. L. (2001, Apr). The nature of professional training and perceptions of adequacy in dealing with sexual feelings in psychotherapy: Experiences of clinical faculty. Ethics and Behavior., 11(2), 175-189.


Peterson, D. (1994). Line drawing: Due process rights in academic and disciplinary dismissals. Unpublished student paper,


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