Tanglement

Tanglement puzzles (also referred to as Disentanglement puzzles, though re-entangling them is often as difficult or more difficult than dis-entangling them) comprise a very large category, which encompasses wire puzzles, ring-and-string puzzles, and bent nail puzzles. They range in size from tiny and flimsy to large and indestructible. They can be made by a blacksmith from thick metal rods, or from much lighter-gauge wire, bent into shapes including closed rings. Sometimes they're mainly wooden. They can include flexible (string, rope, or chain) pieces, and other elements such as wooden or plastic beads - that mainly serve to prevent certain movements. Some have been made from nothing more than paper and string. Even leather or glass.

The objective is usually to separate a distinct piece I'll refer to as the Traveler (a term I've borrowed from a description of route-finding puzzles) - often a rigid ring, shuttle, or flexible loop - even an open cord with a bead at each end - from the rest of the puzzle, to which I'll refer as the Frame, and then to re-engage it. The best tanglement puzzles can elicit the reaction, "It can't be done!"

Other types of tanglement include those where there are two, sometimes more than two, more-or-less equal parts that must be separated, typically by some sequence of twists and slides relative to each other. These are usually made from hard wire or cast metal elements, sometimes nails.

I have been successful at solving other puzzles using computer programs, but this type of puzzle is difficult to model for an algorithm using a tree-search based approach. My solution strategy is to re-draw the puzzle in its simplest topologically equivalent form, then "re-fold" it, keeping track of how the target piece moves through the other elements. The solution is this sequence of crossings played in reverse. Christian Eggermont and others have started the sourceforge untangler project. There are some interesting ideas and references captured there.

I had not found much formal analysis out there on the web, but through the LiveWire site I was able to contact Dr. Richard Hess, who has compiled a self-published Compendium of Over 10500 Wire Puzzles. This fantastic resource has drawings in schematic form of many tanglement puzzles, categorizes them, and formalizes some solution strategies. Where possible below, I will try to show the "Hess ID" he has assigned to a given design.

Dick's categories:

 A. Trapezes (like TJ Iron Heart) pp.1-13 B. Pagodas and Houses pp.14,15 C. Rings pp.16-26 D. Horseshoes, Scales, and Folding Puzzles pp.27-36 E. Other Puzzles pp.37-44 F. Hard Wire Puzzles (bent nails, Magic Metal) pp.45,46 G. Type 1 Finnish Trapezes (like Uncle's Challenger) pp.47-49 H. Type 2 Finnish Trapezes (hinged crossbar rather than U) pp.50-52 I. Type 3 Finnish Trapezes J. Looped Finnish Trapezes K. Other Finnish Trapezes L. Join the Rings M. Join the Rings on Type 1 Finnish Trapezes N. Join the Rings on Type 2 Finnish Trapezes P. Join the Rings on Type 3 Finnish Trapezes Q. Join the Rings on Looped Finnish Trapezes R. Join the Rings Double Cross on Other Finnish Trapezes S. Join the Rings Coiled Cross on Type 1 Finnish Trapezes T. Join the Rings Coiled Cross on Type 2 Finnish Trapezes U. Join the Rings Coiled Cross on Looped Finnish Trapezes V. Join the Rings Coiled Cross on Other Finnish Trapezes

(Whew! That's a lot of Finnish Trapezes! :-)

Frame and Traveler

The Patience Puzzle

 I'll start here with what is probably the best-known of all Tanglement designs - the Patience Puzzle. Over several centuries (!) it has appeared in many, many forms and has been the subject of countless patents both in the US and Europe. I have versions made by several manufacturers - no tanglement set can be considered complete without some form of this puzzle and almost every commercial set includes one. It is still produced today - in metal, wood, and plastic - by everyone from small-volume craftsmen to Asian factories. It has been known by several names, including The Puzzling Rings, Meleda, The Devil's Needle, Baguenaudier ("Time-Waster" in French), Tiring Irons, Prisoner's Lock, Cardan's Rings (after the famous mathematician Girolamo Cardano who lived from 1501 to 1576 in Italy, who described it in his 1550 book De Subtilitate Rerum, published in Nuremberg), and the Chinese Rings Puzzle - in the orient it was known as the "Delay-Guest Instrument." It has been put to practical use as a lock. Cardan's Rings was included as number V in Chapter X of Hoffmann's 1893 classic "Puzzles Old and New." Slocum found an advertisement for the puzzle in the 1785 catalogue of Peter Catel in Berlin, where it was called the Nuremberg Trifle. Slocum notes that in Germany it was also known as Zankeisen (quarrel iron) and by using this name it can be traced back to 1541. According to David Darling, the earliest European reference is from about 1500 in problem #107 of De Viribus Quantitatus by Luca Pacioli. According to the Wolfram Mathworld site, Stewart Culin (1858-1929) avers the puzzle was invented by the Chinese general Hung Ming, who lived from 181 to 234 A.D. Many puzzlers consider this to be among the top puzzles of all time, but I confess it is not one of my favorite puzzles - I don't even think it is a very good representative of the Tanglement class. I prefer to categorize the Patience Puzzle as a Sequential / Gray-Code puzzle since its solution involves a lengthy, rigid, and repetetive sequence of moves which must be scrupulously followed. With seven rings, the puzzle requires 85 moves. Each additional ring doubles the required number of moves - with 65 rings, the time required to solve the puzzle at a brisk pace of one move per second would be measured in billions of years! One of the hallmarks of the Tanglement class is the analog nature of the movement space - Patience is the most digital of tanglements, yet it is still analog in nature and thusly its motions have a lot of play - which can frustrate the pursuit of the digital solution. There are much better Gray-Code puzzles available, and in my opinion the world of Tanglement puzzles offers far more fun to be had, too. However, the Patience Puzzle remains important for the logical thinking it has inspired over the centuries. Here are nice micro (yet fully functional) versions of the Patience Puzzle, and another tanglment design known as "Eyeglasses," both made by Brett Kuehner, from silver wire.

Tucker-Jones

Dennis and Donna Sucilsky own and operate Tucker-Jones House, Inc. of East Setauket, New York, established in 1975. Dennis is a museum-trained blacksmith, and in 1980 began producing their trademark Tavern Puzzle brand of robust metal tanglements. Tucker-Jones' roster is now organized into eight groups, rather than the four previous difficulty categories of simple, intermediate, difficult, and very difficult. I believe their easiest puzzle is the Iron Heart (Hess A001 p.1). My favorite is the Dirty Dog (equiv. to Hess A291 p.11). The Group 6 puzzles are intended to be modular - you can re-combine their constituent parts in novel ways to invent new puzzles.

 Group 1Antique Designs Group 2 Iron Heart (1981) Conestoga Playmate (1981) Old Shackles (1981)(identical to Horseshoes) Captive Heart(Created for theirdaughter's wedding.) Bottoms Up (2009) Self Restraint (1996) Painted Lady (1991) Black Jack (2000) Iron Maiden (1982) Group 3 Group 4 Lyon's Loops (1983) Traveler's Woe (1997) Clef Hanger (1987) Tinker's Bell (1992) Wise Guy (2003) Blackbeard's Revenge (1993) Satan's Stirrup (1985) Dirty Dog (1985) Smartypants (2012) Group 5 Group 6 Double Bypass (1994)(Hess A010 p.1) U-Turn (1990) Big Kahuna (2001) Smooth Operator (2011) Odd Ball (2004) Big Shot (2005) Tri Again (2006) Doozie (2007) Best Ever (2008) Heart's Desire (2014) Group 7 Group 8 Long Island Catch (1995) Double Trouble (1988) Matched Set (1999) Yankee Ingenuity (2010) Sneaky Pete (1990) Patience Puzzle (1984) Freedom's Ring (2002) (eq. to Ball and Chain) Genuine Article (2013)

[33]

Uncle's Puzzles

The tanglements from Uncle's Puzzles are shown below. I would say their easiest is the Heart's Desire. (I own those in bold; thumbnails shown for items I lack, which are almost all equivalent to puzzles from other series.) My favorites include: Pentagon, U2, Trapeze, Vee Mobile, and Suffacator.

 Moderate Gingerbreadman (eq. to TJ Conestoga Playmate) Heart's Desire Carpenter's Special  (bent nails) Trapeze (Hess E018 Govenor p.37) Sweetheart (eq. to TJ Iron Heart) Lucky Horseshoes(a really hefty version of Horseshoes) Vee Mobile (Hess D104 p.29) Intense Butterfly (eq. to TJ Lyon's Loops) Derby (eq. to TJ Satan's Stirrup) Double Image (eq. to Puzzletts Jigsaw) Fooler (Hess D023 Stirrups p.27) U.S. Patent 1393565 - Parmenter 1921 Lance Derby Junior  Triangledangle (2003) Witch Way (2005) Severe Baffle Chain Reaction (Hess D041 p.27) Challenger (Hess G002 p.47) Grand Wizard Ladder Nonplus triple compound trapeze var. (like Hess A019 p.1) Pentagon (like Hess E020 p.37) Ring (eq. to Ring and Fetters) Rope (eq. to Ball and Chain) Suffacator Triad Compare to U.S. Patent 3441282 - Lewis 1969 U2 (Hess E143 p.39) 4 Play Snafflebit (2003) Luke's Lock Triple Crown Cuffed (2007) Other (Discontinued, Promo) Hi Q Tangle - see comments here Wizzard FLP (Front Line Partnership) (Microsoft/Compaq promo)

I finally solved Suffacator! This picture of a version of Suffacator called "Tripwire" (I don't own this) shows that the solution requires only one end of the "shuttle" loop to pass through the body of the puzzle.

[25]

LiveWire

Frank Gregory founded LiveWire Puzzles in 1979 in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. LiveWire's puzzles are smaller and made of lighter gauge wire than either Uncle's or Tucker Jones'. The lineup contains many novel and wonderful designs! LiveWire's roster is shown below - I omit non-metal tanglements and non-tanglements.

 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Candy Canes[Discontinued] Coiled Again[Discontinued] (see Hess E013) Corkscrew[Discontinued] Cross Examination Double Vision Eh? (eq. PMCA The A) Equalizer Frosty the Puzzle Man Grand Prix (Eq. to Puzzletts'Jigsaw, Hess E022) Handcuffs (eq. to Horseshoes) Hat Trick[Discontinued] King Tut[Discontinued] (eq. Puzzle & CraftFactory The Fiddler) Perfect Pitch[Discontinued] Pretzel Logic (Eq. Uncle'sTriangle Dangle) Silent Partner[Discontinued] (eq. to Uncle's Fooler) Sleight of Hand Sputnik[Discontinued] (see Hess E037) Stocking Stuffer Trapeze[Discontinued] (eq. Uncle's Trapeze) Abracadabra Aftermath[Discontinued] Bedbug[Discontinued] Bridge the Gap[Discontinued] Dead End (see IQ CollectionBrain Bender) Firecracker[Discontinued] (eq. PMCA Mosquito) Flight Test (See copper tanglesset section) Hands Up![Discontinued] Have a Heart! (eq. to TJ DoubleBypass) Heartbreaker[Discontinued] Mothballs[Discontinued] Mousetrap[Discontinued] Oh!, Oh!, Oh! Pyramid Scheme Quicksilver[Discontinued] Rapid Fire[Discontinued] Ringleader Short Circuit[Discontinued] Something Fishy[Discontinued] Spirit is Willing Spruced Up Tree Triple Crown[Discontinued] Virus[Discontinued] Watt the Heck![Discontinued] Weathervain Wish Upon a Star Alien Encounter Arrow[Discontinued] Astroknot[Discontinued] Ball and Ring (eq. to Ball and Chain) Centipede[Discontinued] Chinese Rings Coathanger[Discontinued] Double Trefoil[Discontinued] House Arrest[Discontinued] Keyring Companion[Discontinued] (Unsolvable! SeeNotorious Figure Eight) Mexican Standoff[Discontinued] (Hess C282 p.24) Off the Rails Paper Clip Pentangle (eq. to Uncle's Pentagon) Pinetree Quadrangle[Discontinued] (See Chilian (sic) Puzzle) Rack (eq. Uncle's U2) Roller Coaster Shockwave[Discontinued] Skip a Beat[Discontinued] Slingshot[Discontinued] Squaring Off Triple Play[Discontinued] Tripwire (eq. to Uncle'sSuffacator) Trouble Clef Two Part Harmony Wedge[Discontinued] (eq. Wit's End w/ loop)

[33]

PuzzleMaster

Puzzle Master in Canada offers very nice lighter-weight tanglements. Several unique designs, including new (and difficult) designs by Dick Hess!

 Annihilator Derringer Mirror Image Scorpion(Hess E069 p.38) Scorpion's Sting the string is looped through twice Black Widow The 'A'(Hess C010 p.16) The Anomaly Rat Race like (but not) Squaring Off From the Old Game Store, VT (\$14) Infinity Butterfly's Revenge Sidewinder Parallel Dimensions Cupid's Dart(= Uncle's Suffacator) Mosquito This is a simplified version of the Suffacator design. Silent E Blue Knight Man of War G Factor Puzzlemaster offers this really nice version of Dick Hess' design "The Yak." The Whale Designed by Dick Hess Brontosaurus Designed by Dick Hess Pendulum Designed by Dick Hess Keyhole Designed by Markus Goetz. Destroyer Designed by Markus Goetz. 29 and Holding IPP 29 in SF - thanks, Alan! Big 30 Chain Gang Batwing and Batwing 2

[30]

Here is their roster, with thumbs of items I don't have (most being duplicates of designs I do have):

 Annihilator Anomaly 'A' Arrow Dynamics =Triple Trapeze, LW Arrow Beetle Bug =U Derby/TJ Satan's Stirrup Black Widow Blue Knight Brontosaurus Butterfly's Revenge Catacombs =Patience (6 rings) Catacombs Plus (12 rings!) Chain Gang Cowboy's Hobble =Ball and Chain Cupid's Dart Derringer Destroyer The Eagle =KG Step in Future Fantastic Five =U Pentagon 'G' Factor Gordian Knot Handcuffs =Horseshoes Handy Heart Breaker =TJ Iron Heart Infinity Iron Maiden =TJ Iron Maiden Jester =U Fooler Keyhole King Cobra =U Lance Lion's Lair =LW Double Vision Man of War Mirror Image Mosquito Panic Attack =KG Love Secret Parallel Dimensions Pendulum Rat Race Scorpion Scorpion's Sting Sidewinder Silent 'E' The Rack =U U2 Tree Wedding Vows =Ox Yoke The Whale The Yak

Family Games / IQ Collection

Here are puzzles in the Family Games line. They've recently undergone some re-packaging and re-naming. The items in my collection are noted in bold. The others are shown for reference.

You might be able to find them at these resellers:

The (mostly) wood/cord/bead puzzles (now re-branded as "Flabber Floovers" in four levels):

 Abacus (4) Clench (4) Dipper (1) Duress (3) Granville (2) Grape Grief Gripper (3) Owl (4) Periscope This one is in the "Science Stumpers" line. Pulley (3) Shackle (2) Weaver (1) Yank (2)

[12]

 Brain Drain Brain Strain Brain Tester Brain Twister Cuckoo's Nest Wedding Vows

[2]

The (mostly) metal puzzles (now re-branded IQ Collection in four levels):
(Where noted with "PM" there is an equivalent PuzzleMaster puzzle.)

 A (4)PM Beetle Bug (3)PM eq. to TJ Satan's Stirrup Black Widow (2)PM Brain Baffler (1) eq. to TJ Conestoga Playmate Brain Bender (2) IQ Co. New Zealand Brain Burden (4) Brain Buster (1) eq. to Ball and Chain Brain Game (4) Brain Spiral (3) (Hess E016 p.37) Cowboy's Hobble (1)PM eq. to Ball and Chain (Hess E017 p.37) Cranial Key (3) eq. to Puzzletts' Jigsaw (Hess E022 p.37) Fantastic Five (3)PM eq. to Uncle's Pentagon Handcuff (1)PM Heartbreaker (1)PM Iron Maiden (1)PM Lobotomy (4) eq. to Uncle's Challenger (Hess G002 p.47) Mental Maneuver (2) Mirror Image (4)PM Parallel Dimension (4)PM The Rack (3)PM eq. to Uncle's U2 Scorpion (2)PM Scorpion Sting (2)PM Sproing (3) Yield (2)PM eq. to Uncle's Lance

[6]

There are some dexterity/balancing puzzles in their line, as well as other types.

 Orb(see Dexterity) Sandpiper(see Dexterity) Urchin(see Dexterity) Labyrinth(see Route Finding) Magnacube(see Magnetic) Mosaic(see Assembly/Packing)

Family Games offers several puzzles in their "Don't" series - not all of them are tanglements; several are secret-opening.

 Don't Break My Heart Don't Break the Bank Don't Break the Bottle Don't Break the Bottle Caddy Don't Break the Bottle Corkscrew Don't Count on It Don't P Me Off Don't Push My Buttons Don't Tee Me Off Don't You Dare

[2]

Family Games also sells some larger puzzles in their IQ Collection series, shown here for reference. I have the Citadel and Porcupine.

 Arch Rival Citadel Porcupine Portico Temple

[2]

Fiddl'Widdit

Fiddl'Widdit Wire Puzzles is located in Bodega Bay, California. Marichu Hernandez and Paul Wood make the puzzles. I have those in bold.

 Basic Intermediate Difficult Very Difficult Bridge (copper) Star Maze Heart in a Box Heartful Dodger Heart Loop Heart to Heart Hobblitts Loop de Loop Mini Ring Ladder Ring Trapeze Double Heart Loop Heart Ladder Ring Trapper Siamese Angels Triple Trapeze Heart Breaker Jordan's Journey Ring Ladder Ski Doodle Triamese Angels

[7]

House of Marbles

From the gift shop at Old Sturbridge Village, and from Necker's, a few tanglements by houseofmarbles.com:

 Bungler's Block(aka Chinese Pendulum)(Hess E273 p.44) Hell's Bells Madman's Mazesame as Dirty Dog Indefinity Hess D326 p.36 Crossed horseshoes Labour of Love Don't have it- but it's the same asTucker Jones' Double Bypass Mortal Coil Don't have it- but it's likeTucker Jones' Lyon's Loops Gordian knot

[5]

Logika

The German company Logika offers several puzzles by Ingo Uhl, including "Das Magische Schnurspiel" tanglements. They're made from recycled materials.

 Schnurspiel 4 =Eyeglasses Schnurspiel mit sechs Wurfeln Schnurspiel mit zwei Wurfeln Schnurspiel mit ein Wurfel

[4]

 GR.01 Heart = TJ Iron Heart GR.02 Swing = F024 Post and Twirls I don't have either. GR.03 U Ring GR.04 Devil GR.05 Pot GR.06 Loop GR.07 Trio Ring Kawada black packages Nos 3,4,5,6 F024 post and twirls, U Ring, F008 Long-stemmed Rings, F056 Triple Twists (Devil)

The Oskar's Keys puzzle was also offered by Kawada:

[9]

Tenyo

I got these 3 Tenyo "Electro" puzzles in Japan at Tokyu Hands, then found some additional boxed copies.

 #1 #2 See patent 4391445 - Vizelyi 1981 #3

Tenyo also issued a series of "Computer Puzzler" tanglements:

 This is not a Tenyo,but it is similar to Computer Puzzler No. 1 Computer Puzzler No. 2 See patent 1091709 - Rutledge 1914 Computer Puzzler No. 3 Computer Puzzler No. 4 Computer Puzzler No. 5 (was No. 3)

 Tenyo seems to have re-numbered their Computer Puzzler series (or someone copied Tenyo) - above are two box backs showing different numberings. Numbers 1, 2, and 4 are the same, but the square-shaped No. 3 has become No. 5 and a Gordian Knot / Loony Loop - type has usurped its place... I think I figured out the point of Puzzler No. 4. The string loop needs to be between the lobes of the heart - see in the lower left diagram, where the two arcs make a "closed" loop (at least when seen edge on)? Right through there.

Lambert Bright

 Penny Farthing I, II, III, IV Penny Farthing V Bathtub Ring Out of Time - Lambert Bright - IPP31 Free the Cuckoo from the Clock Monumental Mystification, designed, made, and exchanged at IPP32 by Lambert Bright

[8]

Richard Hess

 Menagerie including: Bison, Yak, Pig, Hippo, Ox, Rhino, Whale You can buy Hess' "Yak" puzzle at Puzzlemaster.ca Meteor Torito has it. This set of three were provided by Richard as souvenirs for IPP14. Included: Keyring with Two Cups, Ring, and Baffled Key; Keyring with Horseshoes and Ringed Key; Keyring with Double Cups, Baffle, and Simple Key.

[11]

Markus Goetz

This set of puzzles is called Six Serpentile Strings. I bought it from Markus Goetz at IPP29 in SF. You can see this and other puzzles designed by Markus at his website.

 No. 1 - The Vulpine Colubrid No. 2 - Morning Dew in the Mountains No. 3 - Bite of the Scorpion No. 4 - Sky With Some Clouds No. 5 - Double-Edged Thought No. 6 - Thunderstorm in Spring More Serpentile Strings, designed, made, and exchanged at IPP32 by Markus Götz

[12]

Kirill Grebnev

These fascinating original designs are from Kirill Grebnev:

 Step Now sold by PuzzleMaster.ca as "The Eagle" Love Secret Now sold by PuzzleMaster.ca as "Panic Attack" Step in Future Symbol Spiral Apple

[6]

Davan's

These are from Davan's:

 Voluta Ynoa

ChannelCraft

Channel Craft makes a nice line of wooden/rope puzzles.

 Left Brain Teaser, Right Brain Teaser, and No Brainer Twin Trouble, Triple Trouble, and Quadruple Trouble Trouble Jeff Taylor Original (gift)

[5]

Stumps

Lumberjack Toys of San Francisco, offered a nice line of wooden/rope puzzles called Stumps Puzzles from 1979 and 1982. They were identified by letter. I've obtained A, F, L, M, N, and P. Others shown for reference.

 A C D E F G J K L M N P Q R S T single stick Is this B?

[6]

Mad Cow in the UK makes a series of wood/string/ring tanglements. I found several at my local Barnes & Noble bookstore, nicely packaged and offered by stirlingfox.com. There are eight designs in the stirlingfox series (more in Mad Cow's lineup), I got some of them, in bold:

There are 7 other tanglements in Mad Cow's lineup (I don't have these):

 Bilateral Trilateral Garden Gate Lumbering Square Rope Ladder Snake

Danley Quest

Back in the 1980's in California at Games of Berkeley I found plastic "Magic Ring" tanglements by Danley Quest. There were seven in the series but initially I bought only the Level 6 and 7 puzzles. Years later I found on auction levels 2 through 7. I haven't found the level 1 puzzle, but it is an instance of the very common Boomhower design. Level 2 is an instance of the Wit's End design.

Chronos / Zoyo Sets

The Japanese company Chronos produces wire puzzles, sold in various sets. The series of 3-puzzle sets pictured are available from Torito. The Chinese company Zoyo produces copies of many wire puzzles and offers them in look-alike boxes.

These sets contain many designs I already have in various forms from other sources. I've given names/IDs of equivalent puzzles in each picture clockwise from top right.

I got the purple set (#3+) - it includes one puzzle isomorphic to LiveWire's discontinued Firecracker, which is a simplified form of the Suffacator/Tripwire design, and two other interesting designs. The other sets are shown for reference.

 Puzzlerings Set 1 F117, TJ Lyon's Loops, C264 Puzzlerings Set 2 Stumpy X, TJ Conestoga Playmate, IQ Brain Bender / MI group Puzzlerings Set 3 F116/BA Twin Tangle/Hanayama Devil, HoM Indefinity, Smithsonian set large puzzle Puzzlerings Set 1+ Puzzlett's Jigsaw, A001 (e.g. TJ Iron Heart), ? Puzzlerings Set 2+ Simplified Ball & Chain, Simplified Flight Test, E044 Puzzlerings Set 3+ / Zoyo Set 3+ ?, LW (disc.) Flight Test, PM Mosquito / LW (disc.) Firecracker / Simplified Suffacator/Tripwire Puzzlerings Set King 1 ?, ?, eq. to LW Silent E Puzzlerings Set King 2 ?, D023/U Fooler, ? Puzzlerings Set King 3 E143/Eyeglasses, E020/Pentagon, Triple Trapeze Puzzlerings Set Stylish 1 F023 (Ring on Spring), "Questions," F027 (Ring and V) Puzzlerings Set Stylish 2 Sam Loyd Buttonhook, ?, A048 (e.g. Uncle's Heart's Desire) Puzzlerings Set Stylish 3 Schumacher Keychain, IPG Hooks, ?

Perry Horton Tangles

I acquired a group of tanglement puzzles made by the late Perry A. Horton of Albany Oregon, from a neighbor of Horton's who purchased them at Horton's estate sale. Horton was born 8/25/10 and died 2/2/94. Several of the puzzles are whole, but others are mere fragments. The lot also included some instruction and inventory sheets.

The Boomhower and Wit's End Puzzles

In 1966, Robert R. Boomhower filed for a patent on a tanglement puzzle design. The patent, U.S. number 3387847 was granted in 1968. Since then, Boomhower's design has been sold in many different forms, all of which are topologically identical and can be solved using the same general technique.

A small modification to Boomhower's design resulted in added complexity, and this modified design was marketed by the Reiss company (Hoi Polloi Inc.) during the 1970's as the Wit's End puzzle.

From time to time folks email me asking for help solving a tanglement puzzle they own, which turns out to be one of the many variations of the Boomhower or Wit's End designs, so I created this section to provide some background info on these classic puzzles and help folks recognize the basic designs and how they are solved.

Boomhower's puzzle consists of a tapered base, with a slot. A ring - I'll call this piece the traveler - starts out on the base and cannot be removed off the wide end of the base. The traveler can be passed over the slot and off the other end. However, this is impeded by the presence of a cord which passes through the slot in the base, and is permanently stationed there by virtue of elements at each end of the cord. Each end of the cord has two attached elements - usually a bead or block in the penultimate positions, which can slide along the cord, and a ring or disk permanently fixed on either end. The beads/blocks are prevented from sliding off the cord ends by these end rings/disks. The relative dimensions of the traveler, slot, beads/blocks, and rings/disks are very important:

• The traveler cannot pass off the ends of the cord - the rings/disks are too big to go through the traveler.
• The ring/disks on the cord ends can be moved through the slot - they are wide, but thin enough to fit.
• The traveler also can be moved through the slot (assuming you can get it into position in the first place...)
• The beads/blocks on the cord inboard of the rings/disks cannot be moved through the slot - this effectively traps the cord in the slot, so it cannot ever be completely removed from the base. (NOTE that sometimes a puzzle is missing the traveler ring and so folks think the objective is to remove the cord itself. This cannot be done.)

If you try to simply move the ring up over the slot and off the base, you'll find that it encircles the cord and gets stopped by the too-big rings/disks on the cord ends. How can it be removed (and, of course, subsequently restored)? That's the challenge of the Boomhower puzzle!

Here are examples of the Boomhower design, produced and marketed under different names by various vendors over the years:

One example of the Boomhower design was called the Tee Bar and was offered by the John N. Hansen Toy Company in 1978.
Skor-Mor issued a similar example they called Ring-a-Ling, in their Thinker Series line of puzzles.

To solve the Boomhower puzzle, you should be able to follow the steps presented in Boomhower's patent:

Below are photos of my copy of the Wit's End puzzle marketed by Reiss during the 1970's. Can you spot the difference between Boomhower's puzzle and the Wit's End? Look at the cord - in Boomhower's design it passes through the slot only once. In the Wit's End design, the cord is looped around and passes through the slot a second time. This extra loop necessitates extra moves in the solution. The original Wit's End box says there are three solutions.

Here are additional examples of the more complicated Wit's End design with a looped cord.

To solve the Wit's End, treat one side of the cord - the one closest to the base and the traveler when it is in its starting position on the base, as irrelevant.

1. Using the other, relevant, end of the cord, pass its end element through the slot from the same side as the cord emerges - just as in the first step of the Boomhower solution.
2. Pass the traveler up the base, over the relevant end bead/block and off the end of the base.
3. Pass the traveler through the slot.
4. Remove the cord end element from the previous step back out of the slot.
5. Pass the ring over the base end and back down onto the base, back down over the relevant end bead.
6. Observe that the ring now sits on the base between where the irrelevant part of the cord goes through the slot and the useful end of the cord goes through the slot. Now you can perform the Boomhower solution to finish!
7. Pass the relevant cord end element into the slot from the same side as the cord emerges.
8. Move the traveler up over the bead/block and off the base end.
9. Move the traveler along the doubled cord, through the slot, over the bead/block and free!

Here are example of derivations that, while related, offer new levels of confusion and/or complexity. Many years ago I received a custom puzzle from Jeff Taylor, produced for him by ChannelCraft. In Jeff's design the cord is looped through the slot yet again! I also acquired a very nice puzzle called Ynoa from the defunct Davan's website. Ynoa has the usual base with slot, traveler, and cord with bead and end-ring, but one end of the cord has no end ring and is instead passed through the base to a bead fixed on the other side! Also, the cord itself is very short and the beads are very large, making all movements quite restricted. Ynoa presents a fresh take on this classic design!

The Notorious Figure Eight Puzzle

This "puzzle" is variously known as the Figure Eight, Possibly Impossible, or Loony Loop (though the name Loony Loop is also used for another puzzle which is alternatively known as the Gordian Knot or Egg-Beater). I bought this copy, called Possibly Impossible, from Puzzlesdownunder in Australia. They're defunct and have become Curiousminds.com.au, but they don't seem to stock it. A fellow enthusiast asked me for help with this item, so I did a little research.

The Figure Eight was designed by Stewart Coffin, and he gives some background in an article entitled The Odyssey of the Figure Eight Puzzle he wrote for a Gathering for Gardner. That article was included in the book The Mathemagician and the Pied Puzzler - the book may be available for download at the G4G website.

In their 1978 book Creative Puzzles of the World, van Delft and Botermans have this to say about the Loony Loop: "This Loony Loop puzzle was stumbled upon by the great American puzzler, Stewart T. Coffin. The aim of this puzzle is to free the tied cord from the figure-eight metal loop, without breaking or untying the cord. But -- beware -- the simplicity of the wire loop and intertwined cord may be deceptive."

They go on to say, "Problems with this one? Then look below for help." They give a diagram showing some motions of the cord, but it is vague and difficult to follow. The accompanying text says: "Follow the direction arrows on the diagram: pass the cord loop through the left eye; over the top loop; through the right eye; and around the bottom loop. Now the cord should come free -- or should it? After all, no one has proved it impossible!"

I have never solved it, nor seen it solved, nor been able to follow the diagram. Stewart pretty much says it is impossible, and refers to a "proof" he received from Japan.

Compare this puzzle to LiveWire's "Keyring Companion." LiveWire states that Keyring Companion is a novelty and is impossible. To me it looks topologically equivalent to Loony Loop.

A great write-up on the Figure Eight and related puzzles appeared in two parts in the CFF #80 Nov. 2009 and #81 Mar. 2010 - Later Odysseys of the Figure Eight Puzzle by Mikko Kiviharju. Mikko discussed this puzzle in the PuzzleWorld forums. Interested readers with a tolerance for rigorous topological analysis might also wish to check out an article by Inta Bertuccioni (PDF). Also check out Link L10n36 at the Knot Atlas. This is equivalent to the Figure Eight Puzzle!

Perhaps the name "Possibly Impossible" is almost accurate. You may draw your own conclusions :-)

Classic Tanglement Designs

 The earliest disentanglement puzzle I can remember having is the Ox-Yoke aka Solomon's Seal - rather than free a ring, get the two rings onto the same loop of cord. The Ball and Chain (Hess E017 p.37) is a very difficult puzzle I managed to solve unaided. From Pentangle, purchased in Japan. I obtained Rick Eason's Tricky Dick from Rick at the 2005 New York Puzzle Party. To me this seems very similar to the Ball and Chain. This design is known by several names, including the Loony Loop (not to be confused with the Figure Eight puzzle which is sometimes also called the Loony Loop), the Gordian Knot, the Gekkenwerk puzzle, and the Egg Beater. See U.S. Patent 2091191 - van Luven 1937, also D0172310 - Riddle 1954. Slip-a-Not is a recent version (though the website seems defunct). Fiddl'Widdit Wire Puzzles makes a more difficult, 3-layer version called "Triamese Angels." There are many designs where you have to take the end loop of a cord and follow the cord backwards through several holes to finally loop it over an element, then bring the cord back out through the holes. I call these "Follow the Cord" type puzzles. Here are some examples: Brett brought me back an Emmentello by HABA from Germany. I got the Mausefalle by Philos in Montreal. The third photo depicts a nice miscellaneous example on a post and featuring a large ring at the end of the cord. A vintage Imperial Scale tanglement This is one of several classic tanglement designs that have appeared in puzzle chests from the orient in the 19th century. You can download a PDF showing how to make and solve several designs including the Imperial Scale. Fellow puzzle collector Richard Whiting kindly made me this beautiful Imperial Scale tanglement puzzle. It's very elegant and Victorian-looking, with brass fittings throughout. According to Slocum, the earliest known example appears in Catel's Catalog of 1785. The Imperial Scale also appears in Hoffmann in Chapter II, #19. Richard tells me this is the second one he has crafted (the first can be seen on his own website, which is definitely worth your time). Thanks again, Richard!

Miscellaneous Frame and Traveler Tanglements

Here are other lighter-gauge tanglements I own.

Double Treble Clef
(Hess E041 p.37)
Potty Puzzles has it.

Obstacle

Bunchgrass Mountain Misery

Two puzzles from the
Great American Trading Co., York PA,
purchased at Necker's:
Provoke (on the left),
and Torment.

Brainstorm
IQ Co. New Zealand

Possibly Possible

From the Puzzle and Craft Factory.

Butterfly Pendant
Atlantis / Karl Scherer
Hess E065 p.38

Puzzletts' Jailer

Puzzletts' Jigsaw
(Hess E022 p.37)

Tee Bar
John N. Hansen Co. 1978
- same as ChannelCraft's
Left Brain Teaser

The Rings of Ming
(Chinese Patience)

Ball and Chain
From Stumpy Originals

Wire Puzzle No. 2
From Stumpy Originals
Hess D028 Double star

Hemispheres - Eureka Mini

Jumper - Eureka Mini

Heart String
purchased at Eureka

Escargot - Constantin
purchased at Eureka

Saturn
purchased at Games People Play

Gluhbirne by J.C. Constantin.

Omega
this is the "Hobbles" design
purchased from Hendrik Haak

HM Wire F

Fujita - Meiro Tower

Fujita - Meiro Maze

Five Keys - Constantin

Fishing

Euro
See patent 779874 - Saunders 1905

Bull's Nose - Eureka

A set of 9 small wire tangles from Rick Irby, including: The Magic Snail, The Magic Balance, The Magic Bracelet, Wire Monkey, U Ring, Ring on Spring, Horseshoes, Japanese Nails, and Rings with U Handles

"Puzzle Party in a Box" set from Rick Irby. Includes 9 puzzles depicted (plus a shuttle on spiral): Magic Scissors, Magic Gypsy Earring, Magic Impossible, Magic Snail (dup), Magic Ladder, Magic Balance (dup), Magic Pistol, Magic Bracelet (dup), Magic Guitar

A set of 6 in the "Mini Puzzle Series" by MI Toys, including: Heart on Double Trapeze, Shuttle on Triangle with Two Loops, Violin, D028 Double Star, Butterfly, and Clef.

a group from Spilsbury

A "Russian Angel"

Philos Verflixte Vier
Purchased in Berlin on the way to IPP28.

No. 74, "Orli hnizdo" (Eagle's Nest) by Jan Sturm. Instructions: "Vyndejte provazek." (Remove the cord.) Thanks to Stanislav Knot for providing the information to me!
Purchased at IPP28 in Prague.

Black Widow - Go Games Austin

Australia Map tangle - Mr. Puzzle Australia
(Obtained from Rick Eason at NYPP 2009)

Outrageous Rings, by Dr. Richard Hess.

Toysmith/Mindgames/MiMi Puzzle Drum No. 8137
Purchased from Eureka in Brookline.
 Marks and Spencer offered a puzzle called "Bull Ring" (I don't have) which had the above "solution" depicted on its box... A fellow puzzler determined that the pictured solution is impossible and the above solution is correct... The Bull Ring is equivalent to this hard wire version I have. B1 from the Kawada B set John Jaques & Son, a venerable British firm, called this Ring and Fetters.

Ring and U with Chain

Wal-Mart tangle w/ red cord

Target 2001 set

Dayton Hudson 1998 set

Ring and U on twist
Target 2002 set

loops (Eq. to Lyon's Loops)
Target 2002 set

Dayton Hudson 1998 set

very tricky, especially restoring it without an awkward twist - not sure what to call it

From the Zoyo Wire Puzzle set 3+
similar to Livewire's discontinued "Flight Test"

The large puzzle from the Smithsonian set - except I modified it so the lower left ring is as shown - in the puzzle as supplied in the set, that ring hangs off the frame and is useless.

Wire Puzzle No. 1 - China
Purchased from EsTOYS.

Three Brothers - David Goodman - from IPP30

Marks & Spencer Lateral Thinking set of 4
The Twisted Puzzle Collection from the "Seriously Tough Puzzles" series by Lagoon Puzzles:

Coiled Two Stepper - Abraham Jacob IPP30

Lagoon Wild Wire Crocodile

Pentangle Leg-Irons
Unlink and re-link the two hoops - each contains a small segment of cord.

Nice & Easy set
"Our Starter Collection"
Includes (l to r): Ringer, Block & Tackle, Cherry Tree

Impossible from Rick Irby

A tanglement puzzle featuring a wooden Horse - purchased from Rick Irby.

A robust metal tanglement puzzle - a variation of the "Wit's End" type, where the cord has been looped through itself (an eBay find).

A vintage wire tanglement lot.
The top middle puzzle looks like the Folley patent # 1102576 of July 1914. Bottom middle is a Chilian.

A vintage square wire tanglement puzzle (pair). From another puzzle collection. Similar in design to a Ryede puzzle I've got.

A tangle from Hong Kong "AC137"

Schlitten - Constantin

The Squared Fish - A. Jacob

Encircling the X, designed, made, and exchanged at IPP32 by Abraham Jacob

I Heart NYPP - a gift from Nick Baxter and Dick Hess - Thanks!

Bernhard Schweitzer sent me a care package containing various tanglements and other puzzles. Thanks, Bernhard!

Push 'n' Pull - House of Marbles - purchased in St. Augustine.

Google Unchained - promotional tanglement puzzle

The Fiddler - from the The Puzzle & Craft Factory
Thanks, Em!

Squiggle - Dr. Richard Hess
Received at a meetup at the Liberty Science Center in September - thanks, Dick!

Bickering Couple - Pavel Curtis

I bought a set of tanglements from a French vendor who sells Japanese items. The puzzles are attractive and of good quality. I found the above group shot of the complete set of 10 on the website of an Asian collector (now defunct). I've got 6 of them:

 No. 2 Helios No. 3 Maze No. 4 Labyrinth No. 5 Upside-Down No. 6 Escargot No. 7 Hatena

No. 1 looks like it's equivalent to horseshoes. Nos. 8-10 are other familiar wire designs - claws, trumpets, and twists with straight handles.

The packages indicate that these puzzles are made in China. Based on the Babelfish translation of the text on the site, I believe these come from a "100 Yen Shop" chain named Cando. 100-Yen Shops are the equivalent of Dollar Stores, and are described on Wikipedia.

[6]

Here is a set of several Chinese copper-wire puzzles in various whimsical shapes, and another group of five in brass.

[17]

Other miscellaneous tanglement puzzles:

 Trilogy II from Puzzle and Craft Factory Cocktail Glass with OliveNot sure of its provenance, but I love it! ? A Trapeze The Devil's Staircase, with dark and light bases a different staircase arrangement The Horse (a triple trapeze) and the Cat (a double trapeze), from Binary Arts (circa 1985). This puzzle keychain was a gift from Mike Green. U.S. Patent 692167 - Schumacher 1902 Spiral Invincible Rings - Bits and Pieces (aka Dutch String Puzzle) Minotaur - Loncraine Broxton Part of a set that includes: Sax, Shark, Minotaur, Rocket(I don't have the others.) three triangles Dragon String Dragon / Rings Pentangle Traffic Lights The Adams' Scissors Puzzle The Rudis Sword - by The Grail Inc. See U.S. Patent 3958807 - Hand 1976 Sticks / Two Rods (?) Purchased at IPP28 in Prague, from (I think) Ray Bathke's table. A JCC tanglement "S270" from a Baxter Ergatoudis auction. Can you take three safety pins and link them in such a way that if any one is removed, all fall apart? Think about it, then look up Borromean Rings. Mind Benders Star Ring "Brought to you by the Wireman (c) 1978" Teaser Balls - designed by Anneke Treep and Christian Freeling, made by John Rausch. A gift from John, at the 2014 RPP - thanks! Mini Teaser Balls - Rocky Chiaro IPP 29 - thanks, Rocky! Teaser Balls was invented by Anneke Treep and Christian Freeling. Also made by John Rausch. See a solution at George Bell's site. Here are several wooden & string tanglements issued by Bit & Pieces:       Triple Post, Window Pain, Terrible Twosome / Twin Towers, Triple Torment

I got a partially filled wholesale box of old Skor-Mor Thinker Series puzzles. The lot included: 3x F14 Frantic Frenzy (eq. to Wit's End), 1x F18 Ring-A-Ling (equal to Left Brain), 1x (no label, but equal to horseshoes), and 5x F17 Two On One (equal to Ox Yoke). See below...

Various packaged wooden tanglements I brought back from Japan.

Polycube Tanglements

This section is for wooden polycube puzzles that would otherwise go in the Interlocking section, but have only two pieces each and behave more like tanglements due to the freedom of movement of the pieces.

 This is Tom Jolly's great two-piece design called Tangler, made from Quilted Maple by Eric Fuller. Sun, designed by Jos Bergmans, made by Eric Fuller, from Sapele wood. Here, one must manipulate the two pieces in order to position them such that the two inset semicircles mate. Changing Partners designed by Chi-Ren Chen. Purchased from Puzzlewood. Four different pieces - all six possible pairs fit together (with rotations) to form 4x4x4 holey cubes.

Bent Nails

Basic two-piece disentanglements made from hard wire, especially the sturdy bent nails puzzle, are among the best introduction to puzzles. There are many variations, all having different solutions.

 F001 Nails U.S. Patent 969481 - Jenkins 1910 Here is the solution for the basic bent nails puzzle. Notice how the pointed ends exit through the loops? The Glass Nails were issued by Bits & Pieces some time ago. Trumpets(aka S-Nails)(Hess F114 p.46)From Games People Play The Professor Puzzle "Hard As Nails" set includes:   Nail Biter, which I don't have (but see Bent Again, below). The Nail Biter/Bent Again design improves on the basic bent nails by preventing the solution where the points exit through the loops. Nail Jail (see right)   S-Nail, which I don't have but which seems like the Trumpets puzzle. The Last Nail in the Coffin (see right) (#5 is balancing nails on the head of another - see my dexterity page.) Nail Jail - see Hess F123 #2 in a series of 5 Professor Puzzle nail puzzles. Puzzlingpuzzles.com offers nail puzzles, including their "Hard As Nails," which seems identical to Nail Jail. The Last Nail in the Coffin - see Hess F126 #4 in a series of 5 Professor Puzzle nail puzzles. This is an excellent puzzle and very different from the usual linked nails! Two distinct maneuvers are required in sequence. I still forget how it's done even after practicing! Mr. Puzzle Australia offers several nail puzzles, including a set of four with stand called Another Nailbiter, and their entry in the Tokyo 2004 IPP Design Competition called Twisted's Sister (with Torii gate). The set includes four puzzles: Bent Again (like Nail Biter) - F122, Get Hooked (like Last Nail in the Coffin), Last Tangle in Tamborine (3 nails), and Twisted. This is the 3-Nail Combo from Puzzlesdownunder. It includes the Nail Twister, Nail Lock, and something similar to the Trumpets / Twisted. Puzzlingpuzzles.com offers nail puzzles, including this 4-nail puzzler called Spider Nails.

[15]

Over the years, Rick Irby has created many wonderful tanglement puzzles, including several bent nails designs.

 Double Loop, Get the Point, Lucky Charm, Naughty Nails, Nasty Nails, Nastier Nails, One Way Only Nails Point the Way, Puzzle Up, Rattlesnake, Revenge of the Nails, Triangle Nails, Twister Nails Nails Puzzle Ring Puzzle Up Nails The Revenge of the Nails Triple Twister - purchased from Rick Irby. A very large pair of Nasty Nails - purchased from Rick Irby.

[8]

Hard Wire Sets - Vintage

This is a vintage Puzzle Parties set by Gilbert. It includes 21 puzzles and an instruction booklet. (Gilbert's numbering, with Hess IDs.)

 No. 869 - The Twin Rings (F079 p.46) No. 878 - Three Rings (F010 p.45) No. 877 - Question Puzzle (F002) No. 868 - Twin Links (F063) No. 884 - Nails (F001) No. 896 - Heathen Ring (F017, but triple) No. 885 - Three Links (F014) No. 879 - Foxy Links (F024) No. 871 - Shamrock (F025) No. 895 - Wishbone (F008) No. 897 - Chinese Rings The Mysto Crosses (F026) Vampire Puzzle (F006) No. 891 - Tangle Twister (F020) No. 893 - Spider Web (plate maze) No. 880 - Conjuring Rings (F017) Turtle Puzzle No. 855 - Heart Puzzle No. 859 - Star and Crescent No. 883 - Spiral (ring on spring) (eq. to Hess F005 - Double Rings with bent handles)

Gilbert Set

Six puzzles, including:

 No. 891 Tangle Twister No. 895 Wishbone No. 869 Twin Rings No. 884 Nail Puzzle No. 878 Three Rings No. 877 Question Puzzle

Journet's Family Compendium. Instructions inside lid.

Eighteen puzzles, including:

 Two Nails V and Two Rings - F027 Dee Rings - F017 Rings & Links - two clips and a ring (or two?) Three Links - F014 Three Rings - more like a smaller version of Triple Twists (Target 2000) than F010 Ring on Spring ABC Salmon & Grid Pig Tail - F002 Two Loops - C and U F030 Lucky Star (horseshoe/heart/star) Curly - Post & Twirls F024 Jolly Ni**er (Strongman) Three Nags Maze - Ring and Plate Hearts Keys

Journet's Popular Compendium. Instructions inside lid.

Nine puzzles, including:

 Heart & Anchor (aka Faith, Hope, & Charity) Two Links - Devil's Keys ABC Keys Spring (ring on spring F023) Star & Garter Pig Tail - F002 Two Nails Three Snakes

The International Box of Assorted Puzzles, from H.P. Gibson & Sons, Ltd. London E.C.1 (IBA)

Eight puzzles, including:

 Fire Irons Snake & Scissors Tango (loop is broken) Lucky Star (horseshoe/heart/star) Salmon & Grid Heart & Anchor - aka Faith, Hope, & Charity - (missing - sub. shown) Hearts Sandow

The International Monster Box of Puzzles, from the International Card Company, London, E.C. (IMB)

Nine puzzles, including:

 ring and twist - F018 ring on spring - variation where spring end runs back thru spring axially, has bead on ring double rings with handles F002 Three Snakes nails ABC Three Nags Faith, Hope, & Charity - cross/anchor/heart Kultur - Strafe der Kaiser - like Sandow

The International Box of Metal Puzzles, Series No. 4, from H.P. Gibson & Sons, Ltd., London, E.C. (GIB).
This is the one I would've wanted back then - it has almost everything! The inside cover of the box describes each puzzle.

Twenty puzzles, including:

 Pick-It-Out - pick the ball out of its flower-like cup Spring - F023 Aeroplane Two Nails Fire Irons Two Wire Links - F016 Claws Anchors Three Wire Links - F014 Triple Clips Two Loops - C and U Pig Tail - F002 Hearts Two Keys ABC Lucky Star - heart/horseshoe/star Tango Salmon & Grid Three Snakes Star & Garter Three Nags Two Links - Devil's Keys

"Chad Valley Series British Made Metal Puzzles" (blue box). (CVB) Instructions on loose blue sheet included.

Twelve puzzles on the sheet, including:

 ABC Spring Three Twists - Triple Clips F014 Maze - ring on plate Two Nails Pig Tail Three Rings F010 Aeroplanes Keys Two Link - Claws F016 Link & Twist - F020 Three Link - like Target 2000 Triple Twists

"Chad Valley Metal Puzzles" (red box). (CVR) Box cover depicts eleven puzzles and says "Full directions included in each box," but I don't have the directions sheet.

Eleven puzzles on the box cover but space for 12:

 Two Rings (aka Dee Rings) F017 Spring Two Link - Claws F016 Post & Twirls - F024 V and Rings F027 Horseshoes Maze - ring on plate Two Nails Three Twists - Triple Clips F014 ABC Devil's Keys - flattened style I included Pig Tails since there's room for 12 puzzles.

"Super Puzzles" set SP1 by Sherm's of Bridgeport, CT. (SP1). Includes an instruction sheet, but it says it "explains others besides those in your set."
The instructions include the solution to the Doggie (Dog and Collar) puzzle.

The instruction sheet covers the following:

 The Pretzel Puzzle - aka Two Rings (aka Dee Rings) F017 Two Nails Two Twist - aka Link & Twist - F020 The Question - aka Pig Tail F002 Spider Web - ring in plate - sheet tin Doggie Puzzle (sitting dog and collar - missing) Heart Puzzle - sheet tin heart with string Cover the Spot (missing) Triangle Puzzle - a sheet tin triangle with small hole - "catch puzzle" to "push a large coin through the small hole." Spring Horseshoes - sheet tin The Boo-Boogy Man Puzzle (river crossing) is described, but there are no physical pieces
Casse Tete Chinois Jeux Spear No. 430007, distributed by Waldi. A French set of 24 puzzles. The puzzles are shown on the box bottom, and solutions are shown on the inside of the cover.

Includes:
 Two Nails Over the Top - two rings linked by a twist Claws F016 ring and two clips Two Rings (aka Dee Rings) F017 F002 Pig Tail Link & Twist - F020 large ring w/ break, two U's, small ring F025 Three Snakes (wire, not cast) Heart on Trapeze F008 long-stemmed rings Post & Twirls - F024 F026 offset keys F030 C and U F029 triangle and key Horseshoes E013 chain on spiral Patience - 5 rings large wire version of Tango E002 Stilts Spring triangle/heart in spiral Egg-Beater - simple single-level version double trapeze

The Uncle Sam Puzzles sets were issued by the J.L. Sommer Mfg. Co. of Newark, NJ. According to Slocum and Botermans in Puzzles Old and New page 99, there were four sets with two puzzles in each and they appeared in 1920.
I found all four sets in a larger box, called the Big 4 Set, Uncle Sam Puzzles , which is stamped "E.G. Billings Toy Shop, Providence RI" on the back.
Set No. 1 contains: Pig Tails (F002), and the Ring on Spring (F023).
Set No. 2 contains: Mutt and Jeff (F003), Over the Top (F079).
Set No. 3 contains: Horseshoes (D001), Three Rings (F010).
Set No. 4 contains: plate heart with string, Double-G (F017).

Zenith set - I obtained a set of loose puzzles and an instruction sheet copyright 1950 by Zenith Toy Co., Brooklyn NY. Several puzzles are described, many of which aren't metal tanglements. The tanglements described include: Double Twist F020, Bar Circle F017, Double Links and Ring (two clips and ring), Double Prong F008, Ring and Coil aka Spring, Double Question Mark aka Pig Tail F002, Double Loop F015, Triple Links F014, Double Ring and Loop F018 with another ring, Double Hook (Claws F016), Double Triangle F012, Nails F001.

Hard Wire Sets - Modern

Parlor Puzzles sells some nice sets. The sets contain many of the same designs I already have, and all of them contain the basic F001 Bent Nails. I have Sets #2 and #3.

 Set 1 Ring on Spring, Claws, Double Rings with Straight Handles, and Double Twists with U Handles. Set 2 Includes the Link (leftmost) and the Latch (rightmost). The Latch is actually the opposite effect of Nail Biter / Bent Again - it enforces the points-through solution. Set 3 Sets 1 and 2 combined (only one copy of the bent nails), for a lower price.

Here are some other wire puzzle sets I've obtained.

 Sets from Wal-Mart

 Sets from Target 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2011

 Sets from Dayton Hudson

 Miscellaneous Tanglement Sets (No Box) JAL promo sets Kawada Make Puzzle Set B Purchased in Japan Kawada Make Puzzle Set E Purchased in Japan

Here are two other sets I don't own, but I have seen them often on auction, and I have all of the designs they include.

 I have all of the 7 designs included in the "Shaolin Magic Meditation Puzzles." Moving clockwise from the upper left, they are (or are equivalent to): Lotus Flower Blooming, Horseshoes, Star-and-Garter, Double Rings with Straight Handles, Twin Tangle, Japanese Nails, and Claws. The set of 12 Magic Metal Puzzles includes: Double Triangles, Double Twist with Twist, Double Rings with Straight Handles, Ring and Clip, Offset Triangles, Double Rings with Bent Handles (F005), Triangle and Ring, Double Twists with Curved Handles (F119), Double Twists with U Handles (F117), Double Clips, Double Rings, and Twist and Ring. I have all of those designs.

Hard Wire - Individual Puzzles

The following are from various sets, including those shown above. Many are small miscellaneous items I've had for a long time, by Famus (Magic Metal Puzzles) and Nasta (Mr. Magician Metal Magic Puzzles). I have many loose clips, rings, and triangles, not shown. I've replaced the group shots with the individual pics in the table below, and I have listed the Hess ID and his name for each of them. These are in Hess' section F, Hard Wire Puzzles.

center>
 F001 Nails F002 Double Rings w/ Handlesaka "Pig Tail" or "The Eastern Question" Not shown: F003 = dbl rings w/ lg handles F004 = dbl rings w/ short handles F005 Double rings with bent handlessmall from Gilbert setlarge from Dayton Hudson 1999 set F006 Triple rings with handles First is "Well Spent Cash", next is Gilbert's "Vampire" Not shown: F007 = quad rings w/ handles F008 Long-stemmed Rings F009 Double Rings F010 Triple Rings F011 Quadruple Rings F012 Double Triangles F013 Double Clips F014 Triple Clips F015 Double Twists F016 Double Bends aka Claws Hess p.45and F073 p.46 U.S. Patent 399146 - Jacobs 1889 F017 Double G aka Two Rings aka Dee Rings aka Bar Circle aka The Pretzel Puzzle, aka Conjuring Rings F017 Parlor Puzzles Rings Compare with U.S. Patent 788048 - Jensen 1905 F017 Professor Puzzle's The Enigmain the U.S. included in the Metal Madness set from Cardinal F018 Twist and Ring Not shown: F019 dbl rings and twist F020 Double Twist with Twist U.S. Patent 718323 - Deck 1903 F021 Offset Triangles F022 double V's F023 ring and spring (Hess p.45) U.S. Patent 742397 - Day 1903 ring on spring twice F024 Post and Twirls F025 Wire Snakes F026 Offset Keys F027 Ring and V F028 Wheels and Ring(s) F029 Triangle and Key F030 C and U Large version by Constantin, purchased from Oy Sloyd Ab. U.S. Patent 584857 - Dennis 1897 F031 Wire Monkey NOTE: F032 - F050 were omitted from Hess because they are cast, enlarged, or include flexible parts F051 Japanese Nails Not shown: F052 triangle and 2 circles F053 circle and triangle w/ lock F054 two circles w/ lock F055 circle, square, and triangle F056 Triple Twistssee Kawada GR.04 Devil F057 triangle with 2 twists(I don't have this.) F058 Wheels with 2 ringssee Kawada GR.06 Loop contrast this with F028 - in F058 one of the rings is permanently attached and links the two wheels. F059 Japanese Hairpins F060 Cup and locked ringsee Kawada GR.05 Pot Not shown: F061 - F068 F070 - F074 F075, F076, F082, and F084-F103 omitted from compendium F077 - F078 F080 - F111 F069 Double Rings with Straight Handles F079 twist and two ringsaka "Over the Top" F081 Open Hearts F112 double twists with handlesTwisted Twins by Binary Arts Not shown: F113 dbl rings w/ threaded handles F114 Israeli Nailsaka Trumpets Not shown: F115 mini-ring w/ clip F116 Sao Paulo Puzzleaka Twin Tangle by Binary Arts F117 Double Twists with U Handles F118 lg bent tip nails(I don't have this.) F119 Double twists with curved handlesaka NinesSmithsonian set Not shown: F120 Naughty Nines F121 "The Wire Puzzle" F122 Bent AgainMr. Puzzle Australia F123 Hard As Nails by Puzzlingpuzzleseq. to Nail Jail by Professor Puzzle Not shown: F124 Totally Nailed F125 Totally Hard(I don't have this.) F126 Get HookedMr. Puzzle Australia NOTE: F126 is the last item in section F.

Prior to section F, Hess covers several other categories of wire puzzle:

• A) Trapezes
• B) Pagodas and Houses
• C) Rings (this section includes the Patience puzzle)
• D) Horseshoes, Scales, and Folding Puzzles
• E) Other Puzzles

I have included some items from those sections in the next table.

 A001 simple trapeze A048 entangled hearts p.2 C264 p.23 Spiral with Heart Casse Tete Chinois set D001 p.27 Horseshoesmany sets include this classic D009 ScalesLe Bon Geolier D034 Japanese horseshoesWalMart SM186 green set E002 Two-way Stiltsfrom the Casse Tete Chinois boxed set E013 Triple Twist E037 p.37 Entangled double loops I got the long-handled CADABRA at a DAC.smaller is from Target 2002 set U.S. Patent 1168987 - Wixom 1916 and U.S. Patent 478668 - Walker 1892 E044 p.38 Quadruple Loop With Chain (a2)from small blue French box SM186 E051 Airplane on Mt. Fuji

Large twists with U handles
Target 2002 set

eights
Smithsonian set

P and G Clips
WalMart WM7494 gold box w/ red string on cover

Twists - Target 2004 set

Triple Twists - Target 2000 set

Parlor Puzzles Triangle

Wal-Mart WM9036 set of 4

Wal-Mart - twists w/ J handles

Wal-Mart - bent nines

Stumpy Originals "X"
aka Lotus Flower Blooming

Dayton Hudson 1998 set

Pretzel

Paper Clips - Luc de Smet IPP19
U.S. Patent 442511 - Church 1890

Professor Puzzle's The Sting
in the U.S. included in the Metal Madness set from Cardinal

Ampersand
originally designed by Rick Irby

Another kind of Ampersands.

pinches
 IPG - triangles IPG - SS IPG - hooks "Questions" Gift from Brett's Mom & Dad - thanks!
 Dr. Richard Hess has created several "hybrid" puzzles based on combining elements from different puzzles offered by Professor Puzzle: Claw-Pinch Hybrid Claw-Nail Hybrid Nail-Menace Hybrid #15 Purchased from Dick at IPP28 in Prague Hybrid #55 IPP31 Berlin

Here is a fairly simple tanglement, but in a fairly large size, called Troika.

The Hanayama Cast Series and Other Modern Cast Tanglements

 Hanayama makes a wonderful line of "CAST" puzzles - a series "edited" by the late famous Japanese puzzle expert Nobuyuki ("Nob") Yoshigahara (1936-2004). (Nob's mailing list NOBNET remains active.) The Hanayama Cast series puzzles are rated within difficulty levels 1 through 6. Almost all of them are sturdy two-piece tanglements. Some might be better classified as route-finding puzzles - especially many of the creations by Oskar van Deventer. However, I have grouped them all here together. Similar puzzles also have appeared under the "Eureka" and "Kawada" brands. In some cases, another puzzle is equivalent to the Hanayama version. .myfavh { background-color : #bbbbdd ; } I have highlighted my favorites in this color. You might be able to buy from the following sources (I make no warranty!):

Level 1:ABCKeysBikeFlagLoopzHook Level 2:KeyringCricket Level 3:S and SO'GearCage Level 4:DevilHeartBaroqRingL'OeufRadix DisksViolinHorseshoesPlateKey 2MedalBoxHarmony Snake and StarW-UDolceCubyCoilDelta CoasterMarbleRattleDonutsTwistCylinderU & UKeyhole G & GGalaxy ABC British Registry Number 577846 - 1911 Keys U.S. Patent 488974 - Davis 1892 Bike U.S. Patent 609941 - Lejeune 1898 Flag U.S. Patent 596633 - Shortt 1898 Loop Designed by Vesa Timonen But take a look at U.S. Patent 984803 - Dinuccio 1911 Hook Designed by Vesa Timonen Key Ring Designed by Oskar van Deventer NOTE: In the solved state, the words "Key" and "Ring" are in the same quadrant. Cricket U.S. Patent 609081 - Collins 1898 Disks Designed by Oskar van Deventer Violin U.S. Patent 3168316 - Lytle 1965 Horse Plate Key 2 Designed by Otake & Wong Medal This is a commercial version of Dalgety's St. Mungo's Fish Cast Box - Designed by Akira Yuta. Navigate the ring from encircling the "Start" edge, free of the box (then back again). Of the 12 edges of the hollow cube frame, only 7 have various slots that allow the tooth in the ring's slot to pass. Purchased at Time Machine Hobby, who now carry the Hanayama line (in addition to Tavern Puzzles, Thinkfun Puzzles, and a lot of other great puzzles and toys). Harmony, designed by Dmitry Pevnitskiy and Kirill Grebnev. St. Mungo's Fish from James Dalgety S and S Based on the Devil's Keys U.S. Patent 732954 - Mowry 1903 O'Gear Designed by Oskar van Deventer Sunflower(George miller) Equiv. to "O'Gear" Cage A variation of the "national puzzle" of the Czech Republic. Star U.S. Patent 3383113 - McCandless 1968 W-U Dolce Designed by Akio Yamamoto Cuby Designed by Oskar van Deventer Coil Designed by Edi Nagata Delta Hanayama Cast G & G - designed by Jin-Hoo Ahn Hanayama Cast Galaxy - designed by Bram Cohen Winner of a Jury Honorable Mention in the 2013 IPP Design Competition Twin Tangle - see Hess F116 p.46 Equiv. to "Devil" Heart Baroq Designed by Akio Yamamoto Ring L'Oeuf Designed by Oskar van Deventer Radix Designed by Akio Yamamoto Coaster Designed by Serhiy Grabarchuk MarbleDesigned by Bram Cohen and Oskar van Deventer Rattle Designed by Bram Cohen Cast Donuts - Hanayama designed by Vesa Timonen Hanayama Cast Twist designed by Oskar van Deventer. Separate the two donuts - each has a series of engraved spiraling and criss-crossing grooves, and a pin that rides in the grooves of the other donut. Hanayama Cast Cylinder - designed by Vesa Timonen Hanayama Cast U & U - designed by Kyoo Wong The nuts screw up and down but do not come off. A gift from Brett - thanks! Hanayama Cast Keyhole designed by Vesa Timonen. Amour Designed by Akio Yamamoto Spiral Designed by Kennet Walker Laby U.S. Patent 598855 - Carter 1898 16 to 1 Issued by Bits & Pieces Equiv. to "Laby" Ring 2 Based on a design by Jose Grant Duet Designed by Oskar van Deventer Vortex (2008) Designed by Akio Yamamoto Equa Designed by Oskar van Deventer Helix Designed by Akio Yamamoto H&Hdesigned by Oskar van Deventer Elk Chain Designed by Oskar van Deventer GGG Special from James Dalgety; Designed by Oskar van Deventer. A more difficult version of Chain! NEWS Designed by Nob Yoshigahara Enigma Designed by Eldon Vaughn I got an original ELJO Enigmawith magnetic standa while ago from Puzzletts U.S. Patent 3885793 - Vaughn 1975 You can read about the history of the Enigma puzzle at The ELJO Games website. and a plastic Enigmamore recently fromGames People Playin Cambridge, Mass. Nut Case Designed by Oskar van Deventer Quartet Designed by "Mine"(Mineyuki Uyematsu) Square Designed by Vesa Timonen

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Hanayama has done a nice job of bringing new puzzle designs to the mass market (such as the Sunflower/O'Gear, Enigma, and Radix), and also mining old designs (such as the Keys, Flag, and Cricket). I've cited patents for some of the designs when I could find them. Here are other old designs I've run across that I think would make good additions to their lineup:

• "The Dorstrom Hub" U.S. Patent 819345 - Dorstrom 1906
• "O-U-ASS" (my term, not his) U.S. Patent 637352 - Schugg 1899
• U.S. Patent 1138108 - Hogl 1915

Hanayama also issued a set of six "Marine" puzzles - first in keychain format, then in full size. These were all designed by Akio Yamamoto.

 Seabream (1), Shark (1), Starfish (2), Claw (2), Seahorse (3), Reef (3)

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Hanayama also issued a set of four Disney-themed puzzles based on existing designs.

 Mickey Keys Mouse Alice Pooh

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Here is my analysis of the Hanayama Cast H & H puzzle designed by Oskar van Deventer. The puzzle comprises two H-shaped pieces. One is labeled "H&H (C) Hanayama" - I'll call this piece A and the other piece B.

Hold A "flat" so that its openings are at left and right, and its logo is downwards and towards you. A will remain stationary in this position throughout. We'll use the Left-hand and Right-hand gaps between A's legs when we label states. We'll also use A to define the X (left-right), Y (front-back), and Z (up-down) axes when we describe moves of piece B.

The position of piece B at this point will depend on the current state of your puzzle. For purposes of identifying its orientation, examine the openings between its pairs of "feet." One end will have a symmetric opening with a narrow toe opposing a wide toe. The other end has a pair of asymmetric feet opposing each other. Number piece B's four feet as follows: The wide-toed foot is #1, the narrow-toed foot is #2, the foot opposite #2 and on the same side is #3 and the last (opposite and on the same side as #1) is #4.

There are an infinitude of relative orientations of A and B, since even if A is held fixed, B is free to move in many ways around it, by fractions of a degree - this is what puts H&H on the continuum between a maze and a tanglement puzzle, rather than making it strictly a step maze. Tanglements are characterized by a difficulty in explicitly identifying only those distinct states that are important to the solution. The relative orientations of the pieces will change as you move them from a state to an adjacent state, but not every snapshot along the way needs to be considered a new distinct state. Think of this in terms of a more traditional tanglement puzzle with a wire frame and a loop of cord to be removed - it wouldn't be useful to count every possible twist, turn, looping, and mistaken knotting of the cord as a distinct state - many moves accomplish nothing useful.

With this in mind, I contend that the puzzle has sixteen useful distinct states (seventeen if you count the separated or free state). I label them by identifying whether the feet of B are inside either the Left or Right gap of A, which foot is upwards, and whether the other end of B is pointing Left or Right. The state is encoded with three characters: a letter L or R telling which gap in A, a number 1-4 telling the B foot on top, and a letter L or R telling which side of A the other B feet are on: L1L, L1R, L2L, L2R, L3L, L3R, L4L, L4R, R1R, R1L, R2R, R2L, R3R, R3L, R4R, R4L (and the free state).

In the diagram, states are nodes labeled with the state code. Moves of B are described using sequences of one or more letters. Edges are moves and are annotated with the sequence. Be sure to apply the moves in the order corresponding to the direction in which you are traversing an edge, and reverse a helicopter move if you're traversing an edge from right to left.

The meanings of the move letters are as follows:

• H means "helicopter" - spin B 180 degrees about the Z axis, clockwise (or if H', counterclockwise);
• yH means spin B 180 degrees about the Y axis;
• S means translate B sideways along the X axis (you'll know whether left or right - only one direction will be possible);
• V means translate B vertically along the Z axis (you'll know whether up or down);
• X means rotate B 90 degrees about the X axis (you'll know whether clockwise or counterclockwise as only one direction will be possible from a position);
• Y means rotate B 90 degrees about the Y axis (again, you'll know);
• Z means rotate B 90 degrees about the Z axis (you'll know).
For convenience, in places I've noted whether the "free" feet of B move in front of or in back of A as a sequence is performed.

The starting (or "docked") state is in the upper left at R2L. The free state is reached at the lower left, from R2R, by a simple sideways translation move of B.

Here is a state diagram for the related Hanayama Cast Key Ring puzzle, also designed by Oskar van Deventer. The Key Ring puzzle can be analyzed using a similar scheme and the same state space, but it is not just a simpler version of H&H.

Hold the gold piece fixed flat with the tab on the left and the logo down and towards you. The silver piece moves - the tab foot is #1, the foot above 1 is #2, opposite 2 is #3, and opposite 1 is #4. I've shortened the state codes by only giving the number of the foot on top (also giving the bottom is actually redundant).

Moves are different for the Key Ring - S still means translate B along the X axis - but you'll note that at states L4R and R1L you can move either Left or Right. There won't be any vertical (V) translations. Rotations of piece B are now in increments of 180 degrees, around either the Y or Z axis but never the X axis. Whether clockwise or counterclockwise will be constrained by the tabs and grooves.

Takara Toys Co. of Japan (now with Tomy) offered a line of four puzzles in their "The Puzzle Museum" collection based on an animated detective story starring a character named "Lupin the 3rd." Each puzzle features Lupin trapped in some way along with another character. You must find a way to separate them.

 Vol. 1 with Fujiko Mine Vol. 2 with Inspector Zenigata Vol. 3 with Daisuke Jigen Vol. 4 with Goemon Ishikawa

I bought most of them from Thierry Borne's Japan Goods Shop (which now seems to focus only on pre-paid cards).

Other modern cast puzzles...

 This is really a maze, with a figure of Mickey Mouse in the center. Remove the C-shaped shuttle by navigating the notches around the perimeter and on the spokes.

Vintage Cast Metal Tanglement Puzzles

 This is known as the "Fire Irons." It is described on page 94 of Slocum and Botermans' 1987 "Puzzles Old and New." It contains a poker, shovel, and tongs. The objective is to free the tongs piece, which is not too difficult. A nice vintage piece with cast elements. Lucky StarHorseshoe/Heart/Star AeroplanesCVB Three Nags Salmon and Grid Two Hearts These are the Devil's Keys, also known as "Loop the Loop" - described on page 95 of Slocum and Botermans' 1987 "Puzzles Old and New." U.S. Patent 732954 - Mowry 1903 Tango(GIB) Strafe der Kaiser(IMB) Strong Man(aka Jolly Ni**er) Here is an alternative version of the Strong Man. Here is another alternative version of the Strong Man (I don't have). The Snake Puzzle Maze - Ring and PlateCVB thick rings The Hello Puzzle U.S. Patent 896344 - Akin 1908 Snake and Scissors(IBA) Sandow(IBA) Faith, Hope, & Charity, aka Heart and Anchor(IMB) Star and Garter The lower copy is an unusual advertising version, for the Minneapolis Times. Anchor vintage cast ABC and Keys CWS This is similar to the ABC puzzle - you have to navigate the horseshoe piece around the frame and off. VIM Another maze-type puzzle similar to the ABC puzzle. (I don't have this.) A group shot of several versions of the Elk puzzle. The smaller examples in the center are the older ones, from vintage sets. The larger examples on the top and bottom are versions issued by Hanayama - they're marked "NOB" on one of the tabs. The other large versions are made in Taiwan. Queen's Jubilee / Waterbury Watch A version of the vintage Queen's Jubilee puzzle, called Uncle Sam's Divorce

Jerry Slocum put together a spiral-bound "Compendium of Mechanical Puzzles from Catalogs 1785 to 1946."
It lists several vintage cast tanglement puzzles from the 1929 Johnson Smith catalogue, all shown above.

 Star and Garter Lucky Star (horseshoe/heart/star) Tango Snake and Scissors Salmon and Grid Three Snakes Ring and Plate aka Maze Keys Loop the Loop (Devil's Keys) Faith, Hope & Charity (cross/heart/anchor) Elk Hearts Three Nags Aeroplanes ABC Fire Irons Anchor (lg. anchor/ring/sm. anchor) Sandow

Several of these older cast puzzles have a British Registry Number on them, by which they can be dated.
I have not yet found an online site where the registry documents can be found, nor more information about them.

The numbers I know of are:
 Waterbury 3 U (shown under Vintage Wire below) - 111469 - 1888 or 1889 Much older than I had thought, but this number is stamped clearly. Lucky Horseshoes - 371445 - 1901 ABC - 577846 - 1911 CWS - 789052 - 1934 Seems to be a cluster around 6319xx in 1914... Tango - 631907 - 1914 Three Snakes - 631909 - 1914 Fire Irons - 631910 - 1914 Anchors - 6319xx (maybe 12) Sandow - 63191x (maybe 5) Salmon and Grid - 6319xx Aeroplanes - 637925 - 1914

Vintage Plate Metal Tanglement Puzzles

 An early ring-in-plate maze/tanglement, Gilbert's No. 893 Spider Web puzzle. The 18-step solution is in the booklet that came with the Gilbert set. Dog and Collar, or "The Doggie Puzzle." Described in Slocum and Botermans' 1987 "Puzzles Old and New" on page 93. Two versions - sitting and standing. The Bootlegger and His Flask, mfd by the Gardner Screw Corp. MA. Described in Slocum and Botermans' 1994 "The Book of Ingenious and Diabolical Puzzles" on page 103. I have another marked "W.R. Maxwell 88 Lafayette Ave. Brooklyn N.Y. Patent Apld" See U.S. Patent 1635022 - Allen 1927 I found a second vintage Ryede Puzzle (on the left) - this one is complete and even came with its paper package/instructions in pristine condition. Also shown: Ryede patent - 787796 - Rydquist 1905 and a listing for the Ryede Keyring Puzzle in an early 1900's vintage catalog from the Western Puzzle Works in Minnesota. Ryede This is an alternate configuration from that in the Rydquist 1905 patent, but using the same characteristic shuttle piece stamped "Ryede." I actually found these first, and two of them, so it's not a fluke. I found a reference to this puzzle in a Western Puzzle Works catalog from the early 1900's, where it is called the Ryede Perfection (they mis-spell Ryede "Ryde"). Heart and String Stars and String Ox Yokes Horseshoes (alt.) Valspar U.S. Patent 1484849 - Stoppel 1924 Stars and Crescent See patent D0035115 - Forster 1901 handbag Tango Shoe It's tough to read and obscured by the rivet, but in the center it looks like its says "PAT 1906." I think this puzzle is a derivative of the Dorstrom Hub (which I do not have, shown missing the traveler piece) - U.S. Patent 819345 - Dorstrom 1906 A vintage Trio puzzle. See U.S. Patent # 2162278 Galeazzo, June 1939. BalkanCompare to the Trio.(I don't have this.) Bootleggeraka Boot and Hand U.S. Patent 1519702 - Preuss 1924 But also see the earlier U.S. Patent 295665 - Mount 1884 Houddene Milwaukee Key Maze A 2.75" square brass plate, with a brass wire "key" including a trapped ring. Remove the key from the plate - the ring gets in the way. Clever but not difficult. Stamped "MILW. WIS. F.J.O. 1939" - maybe this was homemade? Gilbert Turtle Peter Wiltshire crafted from aluminum this reproduction of the Stanley puzzle found in Hoffmann (Chapter VIII, No. 12) Panama Lock - this is a modern repro by Allen Rolfs of a vintage puzzle - See U.S. patent 994694 - Sievers 1911. Traveling Salesman tangle - Allen Rolfs - IPP31 Not vintage, but based on a vintage design. USA - another nice repro by Allen Rolfs of a vintage tanglement Leprechaun's Dilemma - another nice repro by Allen Rolfs of a vintage tanglement

Vintage Wire Tanglement Puzzles

 Waterbury 3 U Cup and Ring (Hess C084) The "Psycho Cycle" (Hess E009 p.37) was produced in 1976 by A. J. Koveleski. Get the handlebars piece off. You're in for confusion when you reach the back wheels. Here is the Trickie (sic) Trike. The box says Copyright 1954, Made in Japan. So, I guess this predates the Psycho Cycle. Vinyl covered wire, and no seat. U.S. Patent D0173360 - Kerner 1954 various thin wire,including Maltese Cross, Comb Not sure of the name. I call it "Libra." The ring does come off, with a modicum of force. Looks like Hess E130 p.39 (also see variant E138) I found a reference to this puzzle in a Western Puzzle Works catalog from the early 1900's, where it is called the Ring Off. Kross Keys Jerry Slocum told me Kross Keys was advertised in "The Novelty News" March and May 1915 issues. vintage Spring The "Chilian" (sic) Puzzle. A pair of the Chilean Puzzle. U.S. Patent 962039 - McFarland 1910 See also 1649054 - Barket 1927 See also 828880 - Falkner 1906 ABC set - Hong Kong mentioned in Slocum and Botermans' 1987 Puzzles Old and New on page 88. Buster BrownHess F003 Double rings with large handlesaka Mutt and Jeff Red Goose Shoes promo

Vintage Card and String Tanglement Puzzles

 B.F. Goodrich TagRemove the string without tearing anything or bending the round green end tags. Magic SkullRemove the skull from the string. U-Haul TagRemove the string without tearing anything or bending the round end tags. Aunt Jemima Cannon & Cord A turned wooden Cannon. See Hoffmann Chap. II No. X. Butter Nut Bread Van Houten's Violin Jayne's Expectorant Fairmont Creamery Puzzle Adams' Rastus National Oats Girl vintage advertising tanglement puzzle Rabbit in Hat - a modern repro by Allen Rolfs using plasticized card of a vintage design London Underground - Allen Rolfs A plasticized card repro of a vintage metal design. US Patent 486141 - deVirgile 1892

Other Tanglement Puzzles

 Houdini designed by Nicholas Cravotta and Rebecca Bleau produced by Thinkfun A tanglement puzzle kit with 40 challenges. This is Brainstring - a difficult puzzle to classify. Here, the goal is to prevent a tangle from ever occurring. Move the colored buttons around in the grooves to create various patterns, but avoid tangling the strings inside the cube. Brainstring Advanced Brainstring R This example was a handout at IPP28 in Prague, commemorating RGee Watkins. See the European Patent database: BE393637 - Friedrich Carl Schmidt 1933 Moebius and Trinity Infinity, purchased from Bits & Pieces, both designed by Doug Engel. I obtained this vintage advertising puzzle - the card urges readers to place a classified ad in the Pittsburgh, PA Dispatch. The puzzle objective is to remove the key from the card without damaging anything. The card refers to U.S. Patent 695059 - Kellogg - Mar. 11 1902, but also see U.S. Patent 295665 - Mount - 1884 Loopy Ladder - IQ Products Free-the-trapped-object are kind of a distinct sub-category. Here, there will be a subtle orientation you have to find in order to get the target piece free, or a sequence of moves. Man the Torpedo, Pop-Earth, and Trilby These are examples of a puzzle known as the Hedgehog Puzzle. The Hedgehog Puzzle has an interesting history in the Czech Republic, where it was popularized in a book and a film featuring one with a secret map hidden inside the hedgehog. See jezcivkleci.cz and Wikipedia. The Pop-Earth design was patented: U.S. Patent D0280430 - Holman 1985; but see also 558009 - Worrall 1896 Sputnik - Bits and Pieces 5 Keys - Bits and Pieces Sunglasses - designed by Yoshiyuki Kotani Free the 4 glasses from the frame.

 This design is called Bilateral by Mad Cow; I made my own copy from some rings and nylon cord. Each ring has one cord permanently looped through it. Neither cord loop is big enough to fit around either ring. The trick, of course, is to unlink the two cords. The solution is a cool maneuver. Handcuffs - from Teddy Sakamoto - is a version using rigid metal loops instead of string. Entered in the IPP 2008 Design Competition. IPP31 - rings with red cord This version is half-string, half-rigid There is also a design by Jan D. de Ruiter with two rings of different size, joined by three cord loops, called "Duplo." Here is a solution for Duplo. Duplo is produced by Eureka - they call it Double O**. Gemani also had it and called it "Bi-O." I have seen (but haven't made or acquired) similar designs with three, four, and five rings, called "Trilateral," "Quadrilateral" or "Not So Quick," and "Pentalateral" respectively. The four-ring version called "Quattro" was invented by Erik Johansson of Sweden.